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  Year: 2014 | Volume: 4 | Issue: 2 | Page No.: 44-55
DOI: 10.3923/ecologia.2014.44.55
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Spatial and Temporal Variations of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Wular Lake Leading to Eutrophication

Javaid Ahmad Shah, Ashok K. Pandit and G. Mustafa Shah

Excessive nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are said to be the main driving factors of eutrophication. Eutrophication is a worldwide problem in the aquatic ecosystems. Present study was undertaken to study the spatial and temporal variations of nitrogen and phosphorus in Wular lake (Ramsar Site-A Wetland of International Importance) in Kashmir Himalaya. Higher nitrogen concentrations were registered in winter and lower values were evinced in summer throughout the study. Minimum values of ammonical nitrogen (33.7±10.4 μg L-1) were observed at site III having profuse growth of macrophytes and maximum of 338±43.1 μg L-1 was registered at site VIII (inlet site). Nitrate nitrogen concentration was maintained higher during winter (827.7±35.9 μg L-1), being followed by spring (666.7±67.7 μg L-1) and decreased to lowest (204±9.6 μg L-1) in summer. Contrarily to the above, phosphorus dynamics depicted a different trend, registering higher values in summer and lower values in winter. Higher values of P in summer are attributed to its high internal loading enhanced by warm conditions. The overall nutrient source varied greatly among different catchments depending upon anthropogenic pressures and discharge from the main inlet besides other tributaries. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that sites I, II, VIII and IX fall in component 1, depicting polluted nature of the sites. Pearson correlation reflect significant positive correlation between ammonical nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen (r = 0.668) and negative correlation between total phosphorus and nitrate nitrogen (r = 0.702). Bray-Curtis dendrogram showed close similarity (0.98%) between sites V and VI, followed by sites IV and VII.
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  •    Physico-chemical Limnology of Lakes in Kashmir Himalaya, India
  •    Relation Between Physico-chemical Limnology and Crustacean Community in Wular Lake of Kashmir Himalaya
How to cite this article:

Javaid Ahmad Shah, Ashok K. Pandit and G. Mustafa Shah, 2014. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Wular Lake Leading to Eutrophication. Ecologia, 4: 44-55.

DOI: 10.3923/ecologia.2014.44.55






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