Bioprocess engineering in China embraces the old and new technologies. Before the 1980`s, bioprocess engineering was focused on the development of conventional fermentation products such as wine, beer, alcohol, citric acid, antibiotics and amino acids. Bioprocess engineering started to develop rapidly since the early 1980`s. Recombinant DNA technology has now been applied to the various bioprocesses to enhance the productivity and/or extend the range of new products including drugs, foods and new materials. Also various types of bioreactors and automatic bioprocesses have been developed with advanced biosensor and computer systems. Since 1996, marine biotechnology has been incorporated in the national `863`plan (i.e., National High Tech Research and Development Program), which leads to the rapid development in marine bioprocess engineering, especially in the mass production of microalgal products. Processes for the production of several high-value algal products such as Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA), Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and astaxanthin have been developed. There are now over 400 research institutions undertaking biotechnology/ bioprocess engineering research and development. Many big companies including the Cheung Kong Groups have founded biotechnology branches.