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Trends in Applied Sciences Research
  Year: 2014 | Volume: 9 | Issue: 4 | Page No.: 174-186
DOI: 10.3923/tasr.2014.174.186
Antixenotic and Antibiotic Mechanisms of Resistance to African Rice Gall Midge in Nigeria
O.E. Oyetunji, F.E. Nwilene, A. Togola and K.A. Adebayo

Abstract:
African Rice Gall Midge (AfRGM) Orseolia oryzivora Harris and Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a major insect pest mainly of rainfed and irrigated lowland rice in Africa. Of the management options identified for controlling AfRGM, host plant resistance is the most compatible and farmer-friendly manner. Rice varieties have morphological and/or biochemical traits associated with resistance which induces diverse resistance to pests. Two resistance mechanisms (antixenosis and antibiosis) were evaluated on ten rice genotypes under artificial infestation. Level of infestation was assessed while morphological traits were observed physically; leaf samples were collected for biochemical analysis in the laboratory. The results showed that the three O. glaberrima varieties were resistant to AfRGM (little or no pest infestation) and all the interspecific genotypes were susceptible to AFRGM. In Oryza sativa varieties, long leaf and leaf sheath have been identified to confer antixenotic resistance to AfRGM. But in Oryza glaberrima varieties, secondary metabolites-Phenol, Terpenoids, Salicylic acids and Monotepernoid have been identified as the key antibiotic traits associated with resistance to AfRGM. The result of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the traits produced four major clusters accounting for 79% of the total variation of the traits which had negative correlation with percentage tiller infestation thereby conferring resistance to AfRGM. Understanding the mechanisms and traits/factors contributing to resistance of host plant is useful in deciding appropriate breeding methodologies for varietal improvement. This work facilitates the effort of plant breeders and entomologists in developing and deploying insect-resistant cultivars to overcome new insect biotypes.
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How to cite this article:

O.E. Oyetunji, F.E. Nwilene, A. Togola and K.A. Adebayo, 2014. Antixenotic and Antibiotic Mechanisms of Resistance to African Rice Gall Midge in Nigeria. Trends in Applied Sciences Research, 9: 174-186.

DOI: 10.3923/tasr.2014.174.186

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=tasr.2014.174.186

 
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