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Research Journal of Medicinal Plants
  Year: 2019 | Volume: 13 | Issue: 3 | Page No.: 109-118
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Acute and Sub-chronic Toxicity Evaluation of Crude Methanolic Leaves Extract of Acacia nilotica (Linn.)

Abubakar Abdulhamid , Amar Mohamed Ismail, Ibrahim Sani , Abdullahi Sulaiman and Abubakar Kabir

Background and Objective: Although large amount of pharmacological studies has been conducted to ascertain the traditional uses of various medicinal plants, however, very few plants have been thoroughly evaluated for their toxic/side effects. The aim of this research was to evaluate the acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity of its methanolic leaves extract. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of A. nilotica leaves was administrated in a single dose of 3000 mg kg1 via oral gavage and the animals were observed for any behavioral changes or mortality. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, the rats received control (10 mL kg1 b.wt., distilled water) and 3 doses of the extract (150, 300 and 600 mg kg1 b.wt.) for 28 days via oral gavage. Following the 28 day treatment, the rats were sacrificed for haematological, biochemical and histopathology studies. Results: In the acute toxicity study, A. nilotica was found to be non-toxic at a dose of 3000 mg kg1 b.wt. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, there was significant (p<0.05) reduction in body and organ weights of the 3 treatment groups compared to control, starting from week 4. Haemoglobin level of 300 mg mL1 b.wt., group was found to be significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of the control group. The levels of other parameters in the three treatment groups did not showed significant changes from that of the control. Histopathological studies revealed slight alterations in the liver and kidneys which was most expressed in the highest-dose group (600 mg kg1). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that, while a single dose and short term oral intake of A. nilotica leaves extract caused no toxicity, prolong intake/treatment was found to be associated with alterations in hepatic and renal tissues. Thus, prolonged use of high doses of A. nilotica orally should be discouraged and lower doses encouraged.
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How to cite this article:

Abubakar Abdulhamid, Amar Mohamed Ismail, Ibrahim Sani, Abdullahi Sulaiman and Abubakar Kabir, 2019. Acute and Sub-chronic Toxicity Evaluation of Crude Methanolic Leaves Extract of Acacia nilotica (Linn.). Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 13: 109-118.




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