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Pakistan Journal of Nutrition
  Year: 2018 | Volume: 17 | Issue: 4 | Page No.: 156-162
DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2018.156.162
 
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Relationship Between Body Mass Index, Calcium Intake and Vitamin D Status with Bone Mineral Density among Young Adults: A Preliminary Investigation
Noor Fairuzi Suhana Yahya, Ika Aida Aprilini Makbul, Norlida Mat Daud and Qurratul Aini Salma Abdul Aziz

Abstract:
Background and Objective: Body mass index (BMI), calcium intake and vitamin D status have been suggested to be contributing factors to bone mineral density (BMD). However, there are very few studies on BMD and its associated factors among young adults in Malaysia. The present study examined BMI, calcium intake and vitamin D status and their relationship with BMD among young Malay adults. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 Malay students (50 males and 50 females) with a mean age of 23.7±3.9 years were recruited for this cross-sectional study. The BMI was calculated from weight and height, while calcium intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Vitamin D status and calcaneal BMD were measured using serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D analysis and quantitative ultrasound, respectively. Results: The mean BMI of subjects was 24.4±5.9 kg m–2 and mean calcium intake was 520.6±371.5 mg/day. Male subjects had a significantly higher (p<0.05) serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (65.8±20.2 nmol L–1) and BMD T-score (1.32±1.52) compared to females (42.9±13.3 nmol L–1 and T-score 0.75±1.22, respectively). The BMI significantly correlated with BMD (r = 0.233, p = 0.020), but not with calcium intake (r = 0.140, p = 0.166) or serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels (r = 0.102, p = 0.330). Conclusion: The results suggested that BMI has a major influence on BMD. Low calcium and vitamin D intake is a definite concern and should be increased as recommended to maintain a healthy BMD later in life.
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How to cite this article:

Noor Fairuzi Suhana Yahya, Ika Aida Aprilini Makbul, Norlida Mat Daud and Qurratul Aini Salma Abdul Aziz, 2018. Relationship Between Body Mass Index, Calcium Intake and Vitamin D Status with Bone Mineral Density among Young Adults: A Preliminary Investigation. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 17: 156-162.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2018.156.162

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2018.156.162

 
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