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Pakistan Journal of Nutrition
  Year: 2005 | Volume: 4 | Issue: 2 | Page No.: 117-122
DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2005.117.122
 
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Effects of Poor Nutrition on Reproduction of Dairy Stock on Smallholder Farms in the Tropics
T.P. Lanyasunya , H.H. Musa , Z.P. Yang , D.M. Mekki and E.A. Mukisira

Abstract:
The relationship between nutrition and reproduction is a topic of increasing importance. Many research reports have clearly demonstrated that energy, protein and minerals intake are the most important nutritional factors affecting reproduction and therefore milk production in dairy farms. This is particularly evident on smallholder farms in the tropics where feed is often inadequate. On these farms, voluntary feed intake in relation to the feed required for maintenance is the most important factor determining the animal`s body condition. Many of the dairy animals on smallholder farms cannot build sufficient body reserves (particularly energy and protein) due to lack of adequate feed. As a direct consequence of feed inadequacy, dairy stock on most smallholder resource-poor farms are often in poor body condition (emaciated). Conception rate and calving intervals have been shown to be highly correlated, to by weight and body condition. The study revealed that animals with low body weights showed low conception rate and long calving interval. Energy and protein have shown to maintain essential levels of blood cholesterol and improve pregnancy from 42 to 72% respectively. Correlation of reproductive hormone cycle, calf and lamb birth rates, weaning rates, lactation length and yield with plane of nutrition, have been adequately illustrated. This is evidenced by the current high incidences of dairy cow infertility on smallholder farms in Kenya. Based on the literature reviewed, the current study concluded that poor nutrition is a major contributor to the current poor reproductive performance of dairy cows on smallholder farms. Poor nutrition is also largely incriminated for predisposing animals to diseases leading to high mortality and morbidity rates on these farms. It is therefore perceived that improvement of ruminant livestock diets on smallholder farms will greatly improve reproductive performance and therefore herd productivity on smallholder farms. In the long run, this will also impact positively on the economic status of the household.
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How to cite this article:

T.P. Lanyasunya , H.H. Musa , Z.P. Yang , D.M. Mekki and E.A. Mukisira , 2005. Effects of Poor Nutrition on Reproduction of Dairy Stock on Smallholder Farms in the Tropics. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 4: 117-122.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2005.117.122

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2005.117.122

 
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