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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
  Year: 2014 | Volume: 17 | Issue: 11 | Page No.: 1179-1184
DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2014.1179.1184
Urate Synthesis and Oxidative Stress in Phenytoin Hepatotoxicity: The Role of Antioxidant Vitamins
Itemobong S. Ekaidem, Itoro F. Usoh, Monday I. Akpanabiatu, Friday E. Uboh and Henry D. Akpan

Abstract:
Phenytoin is known to induce microsomal enzymes including xanthine oxidase which catalyzes uric acid synthesis with superoxides as byproducts, thus contributing to the oxidative stress of phenytoin hepatotoxicity. To investigate the role of antioxidant vitamins in ameliorating phenytoin induced hepatic changes through possible actions on xanthine oxidase activities as measured by urate concentration. Growing albino rats of Wistar strain were randomly divided into 8 groups of 7 rats each. Group 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were treated with phenytoin alone, phenytoin + folic acid, phenytoin + vitamin E, phenytoin + vitamin E + vitamin C, phenytoin + vitamin C, phenytoin + folic acid + vitamin E and phenytoin + vitamin E + vitamin C + folic acid respectively while animals in group 1 were given normal saline to serve as control. Serum concentrations of uric acid, albumin, total protein and the activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and catalase were measured spectrophotometrically using appropriate commercial reagent kits. Result showed that administration of phenytoin alone caused significant (p<0.05) increase in serum levels of globulin, uric acid, AST and ALT activities while the levels of albumin and catalase were reduced significantly (p<0.05). Supplementation of phenytoin treatment with vitamins resulted in various degrees of protection. However, the elevated level of uric acid in serum was not significantly (p<0.05) affected by any of the vitamins used and there was no significant correlation between the activities of aminotransferases and uric acid concentration in the vitamin treated animals as was observed between aminotransferasdes and catalase. The findings in this study suggest that antioxidant vitamins were able to ameliorate phenytoin hepatotoxic effects by improving oxidant radicals removal in the animals but would not inhibit futher generation of the superoxides by xanthine oxidase activity and that xanthine oxdase may contribute significantly to the oxidative stress of phenytoin therapy.
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How to cite this article:

Itemobong S. Ekaidem, Itoro F. Usoh, Monday I. Akpanabiatu, Friday E. Uboh and Henry D. Akpan, 2014. Urate Synthesis and Oxidative Stress in Phenytoin Hepatotoxicity: The Role of Antioxidant Vitamins. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 17: 1179-1184.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2014.1179.1184

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2014.1179.1184

 
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