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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences
  Year: 2013 | Volume: 16 | Issue: 24 | Page No.: 1904-1912
DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2013.1904.1912
 
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Immunomodulatory Activities of Yoyo Bitters: Recommended Dose Precipitated Inflammatory Responses in Male Wistar Rats

E.B. Oyewo, A. Adetutu and J.A. Adebisi

Abstract:
This study investigated the immunomodulatory capabilities of the sub-chronic administration of Yoyo bitters in male Wistar rats. Eighteen rats weighing 86.2±4.43 g were randomly picked into three equal groups. The rats were acclimatized for 14 days, after which 0.308 and 0.462 mL kg-1 b.wt. of Yoyo bitters were administered once daily to groups B and C respectively for 56 days, while group A received distilled water. The feed intake, body weight, blood glucose, interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), haematological parameters, serum lipid profile and uric acid, liver reduced glutathione and malodialdehyde were determined. The feed intake, body weight and blood glucose concentrations were reduced (p<0.05) at the doses. No changes were recorded in the concentration of serum IL-2 (p>0.05), but IL-6 decreased (p<0.05) in group B and increased (p<0.05) in group C, while TNF-α were increased (p<0.05) dose dependent. The haematological parameters were decreased at all the doses (p<0.05), except the ESR, WBC and lymphocytes that were increased (p<0.05) and platelets in group C (p<0.05). The serum total cholesterol, TAG, LDL-C and atherogenic index were decreased (p<0.05) and HDL-C increased (p<0.05) in group B only. Serum uric acid was reduced (p<0.05) in group B, but increased in group C with the concentration of liver MDA (p<0.05). The study, therefore, established that a dose lower than the manufacturer’s recommended dose presented the desired immunomodulatory activities and the habitual use of Yoyo bitters at the adult recommended dose calls for caution.
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How to cite this article:

E.B. Oyewo, A. Adetutu and J.A. Adebisi, 2013. Immunomodulatory Activities of Yoyo Bitters: Recommended Dose Precipitated Inflammatory Responses in Male Wistar Rats. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 16: 1904-1912.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2013.1904.1912

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2013.1904.1912

COMMENTS
10 June, 2013
Taiwo Mary Morenike:
Please, what are the side effects of yoyo bitters?
13 June, 2013
Dr. Oyewo E. Bukoye:

Yoyo bitters on long time usage at the recommended indicated the induction of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, which are the key causes of many degenerative diseases. The daily consumption of this bitters is discouraged.

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