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Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology
  Year: 2022 | Volume: 17 | Issue: 1 | Page No.: 28-35
DOI: 10.3923/jpt.2022.28.35
 
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Toxicological Evaluation and Therapeutic Index of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Acanthus montanus (Acanthaceae) in Mice

David O. Oshadu , Joseph O. Ajanusi, Patricia N. Chiezey, Mohammed S. Abubakar, James T. Tanko, S. James Sambo and Bisallah Mohammed

Abstract:
Background and Objectives: Acanthus montanus (Nees) T. Anderson (Acanthaceae) plant have been employed in folklore and traditional medicine in the treatment of various forms of disease conditions in Africa. Unquantifiable amounts have been consumed in the quest to obtain relief from these ailments. Thus, the work aimed to evaluate the effect of graded doses of Crude Ethanolic leaf Extract (CEE) of A. montanus in mice with regards to histopathological changes in vital organs such as the liver, heart, spleen, lungs, kidney and intestine and to determine its median Lethal Dose (LD50). Materials and Methods: Mice were treated with (low, moderate, high and very high doses) of CEE or vehicle (distilled water) by oral gavage once, after a 12 hrs deprivation of water and observed for demeanour and/or signs of toxicity for 48 hrs and 21 days post-inoculation. A mouse from each group was humanely sacrificed and vital organs harvested. Tissues were trimmed, processed and haematoxylin-eosin stained. Results: There were no observable signs of toxicity and death of mice during the period of observation. Gross and histopathological findings were those of congestion, mononuclear cellular infiltration and cellular degeneration which were dose-dependent. The gross and histopathological changes improved within the period of observation. LD50 of the extract was greater than 10,000 mg kg1. Conclusion: An oral single dose of CEE of A. montanus leaf to mice at the rate of 10,000 mg kg1 did not cause death in mice. This suggests that the plant might be practically non-toxic and have a high therapeutic index with regards to its use in folklore and ethnomedicine.
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How to cite this article:

David O. Oshadu, Joseph O. Ajanusi, Patricia N. Chiezey, Mohammed S. Abubakar, James T. Tanko, S. James Sambo and Bisallah Mohammed, 2022. Toxicological Evaluation and Therapeutic Index of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Acanthus montanus (Acanthaceae) in Mice. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 17: 28-35.

DOI: 10.3923/jpt.2022.28.35

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jpt.2022.28.35

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