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Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology
  Year: 2015 | Volume: 10 | Issue: 1 | Page No.: 20-28
DOI: 10.3923/jpt.2015.20.28
 
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Toxicokinetics of N-nitrosamine in Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii): Absorption, Metabolism and Human Health Risk Implications

Jennifer L.O. Patterson, S. Ogutu, S. Willis, L.T. Walker and M. Verghese

Abstract:
N-nitrosamines are human carcinogens that may form in the environment by both natural and anthropogenic actions. Edible tissues of aquatic organisms are susceptible to contamination due to exposure from water, sediment and food processing methods; therefore, possible health risk may exist. The purpose of this study was to examine absorption and metabolism patterns of seven N-nitrosamine compounds in various compartments of commercially-available Red Swamp crayfish. Crayfish samples were purchased from a wholesale dealer and exposed to N-nitrosamines at varying concentrations (0 (control),10, 20, 40, 80 μg mL-1). Samples were washed in tap water and boiled for 7-10 min at 100°C. Crayfish were dissected into shell, hepatopancreas and tail meat. N-nitrosamines were extracted using standard solid-phase extraction protocol with Extrelut and Florisil cartridges. N-nitrosamines were identified and quantified using GC-FID. N-nitrosamines were not detected in control samples. Absorption of the various N-nitrosamines depended on treatment concentration, duration and compartment. At higher concentrations, NDBA (N-nitrosodibutylamine) concentrations could be used as an indicator of NPIP, NPYR, NDPA and NMEA levels. NPIP could be used to predict the levels of NDMA, NDPA, NPYR and NMEA when crayfish are exposed to N-nitrosamines for 6 and 24 h periods. NPYR had the highest rate of metabolism while NDMA had the slowest. Understanding absorption and metabolism patterns can help determine possible health risk due to consumption of crayfish.
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How to cite this article:

Jennifer L.O. Patterson, S. Ogutu, S. Willis, L.T. Walker and M. Verghese, 2015. Toxicokinetics of N-nitrosamine in Red Swamp Crayfish (Procambarus clarkii): Absorption, Metabolism and Human Health Risk Implications. Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 10: 20-28.

DOI: 10.3923/jpt.2015.20.28

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jpt.2015.20.28

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