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Research Journal of Parasitology
  Year: 2011 | Volume: 6 | Issue: 1 | Page No.: 18-30
DOI: 10.3923/jp.2011.18.30
Toxicity and Anticoccidial Efficacy of Some Plants Used in the Traditional Treatment of Avian Coccidiosis in Semi-arid Northeastern Nigeria
C.O. Nwosu, K. Yahayah and I.O. Igbokwe

Abstract:
The aqueous stem bark extracts of Khaya senegalensis, Butyrospermum paradoxum and Anona senegalensis were evaluated for toxicity and antococcidial effects in in vitro and in vivo studies. Phytochemical analysis revealed that tannins, terpenes, anthraquinones, phlobotannins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and steroids were present in various concentrations in some of the extracts. Acute and chronic toxicity of the extracts were, respectively evaluated by administering graded single intraperitoneal (50-1600 mg kg-1) and prolonged (28 days) daily oral (100-2000 mg kg-1) doses of the extracts to four-week old pullet chicks. These produced varying degrees of dose-dependent clinical manifestations and lesions in all the groups with mortalities only in the groups treated with Anona senegalensis and Butyrospermum paradoxum. Butyrospermum paradoxum was the most toxic of the three by intraperitoneal and oral routes; Anona senegalensis was toxic by parenteral route but relatively safe by oral route and Khaya senegalensis was relatively safe by both parenteral and oral routes. Extracts of Khaya senegalensis had no in vitro anti-sporulation effect while those of Butyrospermum paradoxum and Anona senegalensis produced significant effects that were concentration dependent and comparable to amprolium at 0.6 and 1.2 mg mL-1 concentrations. Oral treatment of pullet chicks infected with 120,000 sporulated Eimeria oocysts/chick with either the extracts or amprolium significantly reduced or eliminated faecal oocyst output and improved packed cell volume and live weight of the birds. These effects were highest with Anona senegalensis and Khaya senegalensis. The high toxicity of Butyrospermum paradoxum precludes its possible usefulness as an anticoccidial agent.
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How to cite this article:

C.O. Nwosu, K. Yahayah and I.O. Igbokwe, 2011. Toxicity and Anticoccidial Efficacy of Some Plants Used in the Traditional Treatment of Avian Coccidiosis in Semi-arid Northeastern Nigeria. Research Journal of Parasitology, 6: 18-30.

DOI: 10.3923/jp.2011.18.30

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jp.2011.18.30

 
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