This study offers insight into the fascinating realm of cytogenetics, introducing the fundamental concepts of this area. Cytogenetics is the study of the structure and function of chromosomes. The various materials and methods of cytogenetis are discussed and analyzed. From the fundamentals to the latest research activities, detailed information is obtained through this study. Automated detection and classification of banded chromosomes may help clinicians diagnose cancers and other genetic disorders at an early stage more efficiently and accurately. Automation aspects are also dwelt in detail. This study will be a valuable resource to researchers in Cytogenetics.