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Journal of Applied Sciences
  Year: 2011 | Volume: 11 | Issue: 12 | Page No.: 2092-2099
DOI: 10.3923/jas.2011.2092.2099
 
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Heavy Metal Risks in Integrated Chicken-fish Farming

J.C. Nnaji, A. Uzairu, C. Gimba and J.A. Kagbu

Abstract:
The study reviews the likely health risks to human beings and fish from heavy metal contamination arising from the use of chicken manure and spilled chicken feed in rearing fish in an integrated chicken-fish system especially when fish is reared in such a system and consumed for long periods of time. The necessity, history and present status of the practice of integrating chicken and fish farming is explored and the chemical composition and effect of chicken manure on the pond water/sediments is also explained. The pathway for the entry and accumulation of heavy metals in the system together with their fate in ponds and toxicity to fish is elucidated. The review also includes the maximum permissible limits of some metals in fish, water and sediments and makes recommendations on possible ways of reducing the incidence of heavy metals in fish grown in the chicken-fish system prior to human consumption.
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How to cite this article:

J.C. Nnaji, A. Uzairu, C. Gimba and J.A. Kagbu, 2011. Heavy Metal Risks in Integrated Chicken-fish Farming. Journal of Applied Sciences, 11: 2092-2099.

DOI: 10.3923/jas.2011.2092.2099

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jas.2011.2092.2099

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