Gulls and diurnal raptors posit the greatest danger for both military and civil air traffic in Europe. Less dangerous turn out to be Swallows, Swifts, Pigeons, European Starlings and Northern Lapwings. Storks, Herons and Vultures are dangerous locally. The most tragic accidents are caused by Gulls, European Starlings and Northern Lapwings. The most frequently used methods of bird deterrence are falconry, pyrotechnics and the broadcasting of distress calls. Bird deterrence methods with the use of lasers and radio controlled models are currently only being developed. A great future challenge for European air traffic will be connected with the rising populations of large wetland birds.