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Journal of Applied Sciences
  Year: 2011 | Volume: 11 | Issue: 1 | Page No.: 151-156
DOI: 10.3923/jas.2011.151.156
 
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Differences in Learning Facilitatory Effect of Motor Imagery and Action Observation of Golf Putting

Tae-Ho Kim, Angelita Cruz and Jun-Ho Ha

Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the learning facilitatory effect of motor imagery and action observation by analyzing the effect of these cognitive interventions on the learning of golf-putting. A total of 60 male university students were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 groups: Motor Imagery (MI), Action Observation (AO), Physical Practice (PP), Motor Imagery and Physical Practice (MI-PP), Action Observation and Physical Practice (AO-PP) and control. After a pre-test of putting performance, subjects participated in the practice program for 3 days, for 20 min a day. Subjects performed the immediate and delayed post-tests 1 day and 1 week after the practice session, respectively. For each test, variables reflecting the accuracy and consistency of putting movements were calculated and analyzed by 3-way ANOVA. In terms of the accuracy and consistency of putting results, all experimental groups, except the control group, improved significantly from the pre-test to the immediate post-test, with improvements maintained in the delayed post-test. As a result of the putting movements, the AO-PP group improved further from the immediate to the delayed post-test. These results suggest that the learning facilitatory effect of cognitive intervention can be maximized when performed together with physical practice and that physical practice with action observation is more efficient than that with motor imagery. Simultaneous performance of action observation and physical practice thus appears to be the most effective practice condition, by providing a combined learning effect, which cannot be obtained by either cognitive intervention or physical practice alone.
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How to cite this article:

Tae-Ho Kim, Angelita Cruz and Jun-Ho Ha, 2011. Differences in Learning Facilitatory Effect of Motor Imagery and Action Observation of Golf Putting. Journal of Applied Sciences, 11: 151-156.

DOI: 10.3923/jas.2011.151.156

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jas.2011.151.156

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