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Journal of Applied Sciences
  Year: 2006 | Volume: 6 | Issue: 7 | Page No.: 1499-1505
DOI: 10.3923/jas.2006.1499.1505
 
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Estimation of Consumption Emissions of Lead and Cadmium from Dry Cell Battery Importation in Nigeria: 1980-1998

I.C. Nnorom and O.Osibanjo

Abstract:
The lead and cadmium contents of dry cell batteries imported into Nigeria were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion and used in the estimation of the consumption emissions of these toxic heavy metals from battery consumption in Nigeria. The average Pb and Cd content of the dry cells are 1051 mg kg-1 (range 42-3170 mg kg-1) and 107.7 mg kg-1 (range 4.6-410 mg kg-1), respectively. An estimated consumption emission of 1.16 metric ton lead and 0.12 metric ton cadmium are witnessed per decade from the importation of about 11000 metric ton/year of primary batteries and parts. The calculated emissions of 607 kg Pb and 62 kg Cd for 1987 accounts for about 42% of the estimated emissions witnessed for the period 1980-1998. Within this period, an estimated average of 1671 g/t Pb and 475 g/t Cd were emitted annually into the atmosphere with fly ash particulate at municipal waste minimization sites. About 3400 g/t Pb and 41 g/t Cd are released into the soil through ash and cinder at such sites with about 1% of these reaching the underground water per annum. These estimated consumption emissions calls for appropriate legislation and provision of adequate well established systems for the separation, storage, transportation and management of toxic waste materials such as primary and secondary battery wastes. The environmental and health implications of inappropriate management of primary waste are also discussed. The degradation of discarded dry cells in inhabited areas can expose children who play in such contaminated areas to low doses of Pb and Cd. Ways of halting this form of metal pollution in Nigeria were also suggested. There is an urgent need to develop an appropriate technology following the principles of waste minimization and sustainable development to handle the increasing toxic and hazardous waste generated in Nigeria.
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How to cite this article:

I.C. Nnorom and O.Osibanjo , 2006. Estimation of Consumption Emissions of Lead and Cadmium from Dry Cell Battery Importation in Nigeria: 1980-1998. Journal of Applied Sciences, 6: 1499-1505.

DOI: 10.3923/jas.2006.1499.1505

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jas.2006.1499.1505

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