Background and Objective: Developing suitable tillage practices and sustainable soil fertility options are important components of any soil management programme aimed at the enhancement of the production and productivity of food crops which is a challenge in Nigeria and most countries of Sub Saharan Africa. A field study was therefore; conducted to investigate the effects of traditional tillage methods and poultry manure application on the growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Calabar. Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment was conducted at the University of Calabar, Teaching and Research Farm during the 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons. Three tillage methods (ridge, flat tilled and flat untilled) and four rates of poultry manure consisting of (0, 5, 10, 15 t ha1) were used in the study. The treatment combinations were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results: Flat tilled soil was comparatively better compared to the other tillage methods with respect to plant height, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf area, leaf area index, days to 50% flowering, length of pod, number of pods, number of seeds per pod, pod and seed yield in tonnes per hectare. Poultry manure at the rate of 15 t ha1 produced superior plant height, number of branches, number of leaves, leaf area index, days to 50% flowering, 100-seed weight, length of pod, number of pods and number of seeds per pod. Conclusion: Flat tilled soil amended with PM at 15 t ha1 recorded the best growth and yield of groundnut.