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International Journal of Pharmacology
  Year: 2016 | Volume: 12 | Issue: 2 | Page No.: 126-135
DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2016.126.135
Immunomodulatory and Therapeutic Potential of Zootoxins (Venom and Toxins) on the Way Towards Designing and Developing Novel Drugs/Medicines: An Overview
I. Mohanty, K. Arunvikram, D. Behera, A. Arun Prince Milton, G. Elaiyaraja, G. Rajesh and K. Dhama

Abstract:
The evolution of poison and venom had made the animal body system to deal effectively with defense mechanism primarily by molecular means. These chemical defences target the cell membrane receptors, block the physiological systems in body and cause paralysis. Evolution around years, led to the development of these peptides with effective functional properties that made them more selective and potent, but immunogenically poor, provide prolonged action and potent effect on preys. When a venom or toxin is enriched with these functionally effective peptides form 3D structure that are linked by disulphide brides. This structure is highly stable and they specifically target GPCRs, ion channels and other membrane receptors and it was proved to have indispensable pharmacological properties. The first drug Captopril discovered against hypertension was isolated from Brazilian viper, Bothrops juraraca. It is one of the most popular and accepted antihypertensive drug used world wide now-a-days. Since then peptides isolated from snake, scorpion, spider, bee and sea anemone toxin have proved to display potential immunomodulatory effects and were useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus and psoriasis including autoimmune diseases in human. The present article in not intended to be a definitive review of entire field of zootoxins, but rather an overview, which emphasize on recent developments made in the field of zootoxins (venoms and toxins), their role in the treatment of diseases with a special focus towards exploring their potent immunodulatory and therapeutic potential in the field of drug development. Advances in the fields of analytic chemistry, molecular biotechnology and biochemistry are now making it possible to isolate and purify individual components, using a minute amount of a toxin.
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How to cite this article:

I. Mohanty, K. Arunvikram, D. Behera, A. Arun Prince Milton, G. Elaiyaraja, G. Rajesh and K. Dhama, 2016. Immunomodulatory and Therapeutic Potential of Zootoxins (Venom and Toxins) on the Way Towards Designing and Developing Novel Drugs/Medicines: An Overview. International Journal of Pharmacology, 12: 126-135.

DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2016.126.135

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijp.2016.126.135

 
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