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International Journal of Pharmacology
  Year: 2015 | Volume: 11 | Issue: 2 | Page No.: 76-94
DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2015.76.94
Neuroimmunomodulation Countering Various Diseases, Disorders, Infections, Stress and Aging
K. Dhama, M. Kesavan, K. Karthik, Amarpal , R. Tiwari, Lakshmi T. Sunkara and R.K. Singh

Abstract:
Neuroimmunomodulation involves interactions among nervous, endocrine and immune systems. An integrated function is performed by nervous and immune systems that is responsible for preservation of integrity and homeostasis of the organism. Though Central Nervous System (CNS) has a limited repertoire for its own protection, it has the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) and the capacity to engage peripheral immune system to eliminate infections and xenobiotics. Neural cells involved in the process of providing neural immunity include: Glial cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Besides working as sentinels to get rid of pathogens in the process of neurodevelopment, both central as well as peripheral immune cells actively participate helping in cognitive brain functions. Neurogenesis process may also be regulated by adaptive immune cells peripherally. Recently there is a discovery of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway wherein vagal nerve has shown anti-inflammatory role in endotoxemia and shock. Hormones viz., nor-epinephrine, epinephrine and glucocorticoids prepare immune system to combat infections and enhance distribution and trafficking of immune cells by several ways. This review focuses on neurobiology, neuro-immune cross talk, neuroimmunoregulation, stress and neuroimmunomodulation which will be beneficial for researchers, professionals and academicians. Topics like neurotoxic and neuroprotective roles of immune reactions (which are innate in nature) in the process of aging are highly debated among researchers. In this review, topics like neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, role of vitamins, minerals, herbs and drugs and volatile oils in the process of neuroimmunomodulation and particularly countering various diseases, disorders, infections, stress and aging have been discussed vividly to enhance and update the knowledge of the scientific community regarding this particular topic ‘Neuroimmunomodulation’.
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How to cite this article:

K. Dhama, M. Kesavan, K. Karthik, Amarpal , R. Tiwari, Lakshmi T. Sunkara and R.K. Singh, 2015. Neuroimmunomodulation Countering Various Diseases, Disorders, Infections, Stress and Aging. International Journal of Pharmacology, 11: 76-94.

DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2015.76.94

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijp.2015.76.94

 
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