Many medicinal plants have been identified in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) for the treatment of Peptic Ulcer (PU) but they are still unknown to scientific community. In the present study anti PU activity of these remedies were systematically reviewed and identified. For this purpose, medicinal plants proposed for the management of PU in TIM were collected from TIM sources and they were searched in modern medical databases like PubMed, Scirus, Sciencedirect and Google Scholar to find studies confirmed their efficacy. Findings from modern investigations support the claims of TIM about the efficacy of many of these plants in PU. For example, the oleogum resin of Boswellia carterii and B. serrata as a beneficial remedy for PU in TIM were demonstrated to have wound healing, cytoprotective, antisecretory, antacid, prostaglandin production and inflammatory modulating properties. Fruit and leaves of Myrtus communis was found to be antioxidant, anti H. pylori, wound healing, antisecretory, antacid and cytoprotective. The aerial part from Melissa officinalis exerts its beneficial effects in PU by antioxidant, anti H. pylori, prostaglandin elevating, cytoprotective, antisecretory, antacid and leukotriene reducing properties. Furthermore, Polygonum species demonstrated its function on PU with prostaglandin enhancement, inflammatory modulation, wound healing, cytoprotection, antacid, antioxidant and anti-H. pylori activity. In contrast, for some of herbal remedies used in TIM such as Dolichos lablab flower, Symphytum species, Zizyphus spina-christi fruit, Alisma plantago-aquatica, Cupressus sempervirens fruit, Acacia Arabica gum, Cyperus species root, Althaea officinalis flower and Nymphaea alba flower there is no enough evidence in modern medicine to prove their effectiveness in the management of PU. Pharmacological and clinical studies for evaluation of efficacy of these herbs in PU and their possible mechanisms of action are recommended.