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International Journal of Pharmacology
  Year: 2007 | Volume: 3 | Issue: 6 | Page No.: 505-509
DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2007.505.509
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Evaluation of Hypoglycemic Activity of Glycosides and Alkaloids Extracts of Picralima nitida Stapf (Apocynaceae) Seed

J.M. Okonta and C.N. Aguwa

The blood glucose lowering effect of the seed extract of Picralima nitida has been suggested to be due to its rich indole alkaloids; this study, therefore, is aimed at evaluating the hypoglycemic activity of the alkaloids and glycosides extracts of the Picralima nitida seed. The alkaloids extract of Picralima nitida seed (Apocynaceae) given i.p. caused increase in mean fasting blood glucose levels while the glycosides extract reduced the blood glucose levels in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic rats. Glycosides extract caused significant (p<0.05) percentage maximal reduction of 38.6% (250 mg kg-1) and 22.9% (500 mg kg-1) of the mean fasting blood glucose levels in normoglycemic and 64.4% (250 mg kg-1) and 39.0% (500 mg kg-1) in the hyperglycemic rats. The glycosides extract maintained low mean fasting blood glucose levels throughout the 24 h duration of study in hyperglycemic rats. On subchronic treatment of hyperglycemic rats, glycosides extract (250 mg kg-1) caused 82.99% while glyburide (5 mg kg-1) caused 60.81% reduction of mean blood glucose levels. Thus the hypoglycemic activity of seed extract of Picralima nitida may be resident in the glycosides of the seed extract.
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