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International Journal of Dairy Science
  Year: 2019 | Volume: 14 | Issue: 1 | Page No.: 45-52
DOI: 10.3923/ijds.2019.45.52
 
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Diagnosis and Control of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in Dairy Small Ruminants; Sheep and Goats
Mohamed Abd El-Fatah Mahmoud , Alaa Abdelmoneam Ghazy and Raafat Mohamed Shaapan

Abstract:
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious viral diseases of mammals that have an ability to cause high economic losses in susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. In addition to, losses in the milk productions occurred in the form of sudden and severe drop of milk yield. The aim of the present work was to throw light on the different methods for diagnosis and control of FMD that affect dairy small ruminants; sheep and goats. Sheep and goats play a role in the FMD epidemiology, as they become carriers and act as reservoirs of infection. Diagnosis of FMD achieved by many techniques such as virus isolation, Sandwich ELISA, Multiplex PCR, indirect ELISA (DIVA) and real time PCR. Virus isolation onto cell culture is considered as the “gold standard” technique for FMD diagnosis. Moreover, detecting of antibodies against the non-structural proteins (NSPs) of FMD using indirect-ELISA were successful for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). Differentiation of the infected from the vaccinated animal is of great importance in the control program of FMD. The control program depends mainly on vaccination, treatment, effective quarantine measures, disinfection and hygiene and sanitation measures. Treatment protocols of small ruminants are showing typical clinical symptoms of FMD achieved by the use of antipyretic and analgesic medicine and a broad-spectrum long-acting antibiotic. The inactivated FMDV vaccine succeeded in reducing the outbreaks worldwide. It gives protection for all ruminants against FMDV for 1 year. Foot and mouth disease have the ability to cause milk production losses in small ruminants. Recent diagnostic tools urgently needed not only for the diagnosis, but also for following-up combating programs and control of FMD.
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How to cite this article:

Mohamed Abd El-Fatah Mahmoud, Alaa Abdelmoneam Ghazy and Raafat Mohamed Shaapan, 2019. Diagnosis and Control of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in Dairy Small Ruminants; Sheep and Goats. International Journal of Dairy Science, 14: 45-52.

DOI: 10.3923/ijds.2019.45.52

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijds.2019.45.52

COMMENTS
13 September, 2019
Elachi Johnbona S. A. (DVM):
thank you for the good job! keeping veterinary profession high. I HAVE A PAPER TO PUBLISH BUT IT IS ON WISTAR RAT!
 
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