Anatolian peninsula has been the cradle of not only the ancient civilizations but also many agriculturally important crops. It has long been linked with the origins of viticulture and wine-making. Shrines, seeds, wine cups and reliefs have been discovered in different regions of the country. One of its accepted origins, Anatolia has not only the cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) which has presented itself with numerous cultivars and types but also the wild grapevine (Vitis sylvestris). This paper is on the history of grapevine starting from prehistoric times to the current with classical and later on molecular studies, based on DNA such as RAPD, AFLP and SSR, on cultivar identification and potential in Anatolia.