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American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development
  Year: 2017 | Volume: 7 | Issue: 2 | Page No.: 54-62
DOI: 10.3923/ajdd.2017.54.62
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A Review on Epidemiology and Etiology of Renal Stone

Atul Sohgaura and Papiya Bigoniya

Renal calculi are crystalline structures of calcium oxalate with associated risk factors like dehydration, high fat diet, animal protein, high salt intake and obesity. Crystals form in the distal tubule, nephron loop and/or collecting tubule have symptoms of severe pain and renal colic. Nephrolithiasis is a global problem affecting all geographical regions. This study compiles the epidemiology of renal calculi focusing on prevalence, occurrence and re-occurrence rate in global perspective. Literature of nephrolithiasis prevalence has been reviewed for Europe, Canada, American, East Asia, Gulf region, Japan, China and different parts of India. Etiology of nephrolithiasis was reviewed in detail for types, factors, symptoms, promoters and inhibitors. Renal calculi induction and progression mechanism was discussed with pathophysiology involved. Water and Food are directly related to occurrence of renal calculi, as a major concern correlation has been discussed. Depending on the type of renal stone, food which are to be avoided and preventive actions were discussed. Concise information was provided on the different experimental models of nephrolithiasis induction in animals. Understanding the pathophysiology of this disorder is necessary for the development of new therapeutic options and treatment. Nephrolithiasis is associated with chronic kidney dysfunction, bone loss and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus etc. and understanding the pathophysiology is necessary to develop highly effective drugs.
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How to cite this article:

Atul Sohgaura and Papiya Bigoniya, 2017. A Review on Epidemiology and Etiology of Renal Stone. American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development, 7: 54-62.

DOI: 10.3923/ajdd.2017.54.62






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