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American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development
  Year: 2013 | Volume: 3 | Issue: 2 | Page No.: 84-94
DOI: 10.3923/ajdd.2013.84.94
 
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In vitro Virucidal Activity of Hexane Fraction of Marrubium vulgare Against Type 1 Herpes simplex Virus

Amal Fayyad, Nazlina Ibrahim and Wan Ahmad Yaacob

Abstract:
Acute and recurrent Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections remain an important problem due to the emergence of acyclovir (ACV) resistant virus that makes the search for novel antiviral substances imperative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity of hexane fraction from Marrubium vulgare against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and to determine the mechanism of its action. Cytotoxicity, antiviral assay, time of addition, time of removal, virucidal activity, cells pre-treatment, penetration, staining and thin sections by transmission electron microscope and quantitative PCR assays were conducted to determine the mode action of hexane fraction. Cytotoxicity was demonstrated using the MTT assay, antiviral activities were demonstrated using plaque reduction assay and analysis of data was performed by one way ANOVA and T-test. Hexane fraction was found to inhibit type 1 Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies revealed that hexane fraction inactivated HSV-1 particles directly as was verified by transmission electron microscopy. Pretreatment of cells and penetration assays did not affect the inhibition of the virus. Hexane fraction suppressed the intracellular growth of HSV-1 in post-infection in time of addition (from 2-8 h p.i.), in time of removal (from 12-48 h p.i) and inhibited HSV-1 IE, E and L gene expressions. In summary, our findings suggest that the hexane fraction can inactivate extracellular viral particles and inhibit viral biosynthesis in host cells. The results also showed that the hexane fraction from Marrubium vulgare could be used as a potential antiviral agent.
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How to cite this article:

Amal Fayyad, Nazlina Ibrahim and Wan Ahmad Yaacob, 2013. In vitro Virucidal Activity of Hexane Fraction of Marrubium vulgare Against Type 1 Herpes simplex Virus. American Journal of Drug Discovery and Development, 3: 84-94.

DOI: 10.3923/ajdd.2013.84.94

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajdd.2013.84.94

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