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Asian Journal of Biological Sciences
 
Antimicrobial Activity of Psidium guajava and Ocimum sanctum Leaves Extracts Against Multi Drug Resistant Fish Pathogens
Fakoya Soji, Olusola Sunday Emmanuel and Omage Igbagbobukola Bright

Abstract:
Background and Objective: Plant materials remain an important resource to combat diseases in the world. The development of antibiotic-resistant due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics has led to the use of natural products that have antimicrobial effects. Antimicrobial evaluation of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of guava and holy basil leaves were investigated using agar well diffusion method. Materials and Methods: The extracts were tested against four clinical strains of bacterial isolates from Clarias gariepinus. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of guava, holy basil leaves and phytochemical screening of these plants were determined using standard methods. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The guava and holy basil leaves of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts had inhibition zones of 20±0.01, 18±0.02, 24±0.02, 17±0.02, 22±0.03 and 18±0.02 mm diameter, respectively against Bacillus subtilis; 24±0.01, 10±0.01, 25±0.01, 20±0.02, 25±0.03 and 22±0.03 mm diameter against Staphylococcus aureus; 24±0.01, 10±0.02, 20±0.02, 10±0.03, 24±0.01 and 17±0.01 mm diameter against Streptococcus iniae; 15±0.01, 10±0.01, 24±0.02, 10±0.02, 19±0.01 and 0.8±0.03 mm diameter against Aeromonas hydrophila; 0.7±0.01, 0.4±0.01, 0.3±0.01, 0.4±0.01, 0.10±0.00 and 0.10±0.00 mm diameter against Aspergillus niger. The leaves extracts were active and it inhibited the growth of the micro-organisms. Minimum inhibitory concentration of these plants on the bacteria tested was 1000 μg mL–1. The phytochemical screenings of these plants revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids and phenol. Conclusion: The results indicated that these plants had antibacterial activity on the tested organisms and show their potentials for their use in the treatment of fish pathogens.
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