Unlike cattle, there is a shortage of literature on ultrasonographic findings in both normal and diseased organs in buffaloes. Although ultrasonography has been used as a diagnostic imaging technique in small animal practice for several decades, ultrasound examination in buffaloes just attracted the attention of scientists in the last decade. Recently, various studies have been conducted in both normal and diseased buffaloes particularly those suffering from traumatic reticuloperitonitis, traumatic pericarditis, diaphragmatic hernia, omasal impaction, intestinal obstruction, endocarditis, thoracic, hepatic and abdominal abscesses, bronchopneumonia, lung consolidation, pleural effusion, pulmonary emphysema, pleuritis, mastitis and urolithiasis. Moreover, ultrasound is of tremendous value and provides much promise as a tool of dairy buffalo reproductive management and research. Several physiologic and pathologic conditions of the ovaries and uterus, not accurately diagnosed by rectal palpation, can easily be confirmed by ultrasound and consequently, appropriate therapies can be applied. Based on the results of the available studies, ultrasonography seems to be a valuable tool for determination of various physiologic and pathologic conditions in buffaloes. Additionally, this technique is a decision-making tool in surgery in buffaloes. Several ultrasonographic differences are recorded in buffaloes compared to cattle. Therefore, more studies should be conducted to evaluate the reliability of ultrasound in both normal and diseased uninvestigated organs in buffaloes particularly spleen, abomasum, kidneys, joints and tendons.