Several bacterial pathogens cause abortion or fertility reduction in ruminant, some of which may also infect humans (zoonotic diseases). Query fever (Q fever) caused C. burnetii, which could be one of the causative agents and the main reservoir for the pathogen is domestic animals such as cattle, sheep and goats. This bacterium has a worldwide distribution and can infect a wide range of hosts, including domestic ruminants. The epidemiological data about geographic distribution of Q fever is limited. Moreover, the diagnosis of the C. burnetii is very difficult, because it need special stain in addition, it cannot be isolate on traditional media and isolate only on embryonated chicken eggs. The detection and diagnosis of coxiellosis in animal are necessary to reduce economic losses in animals and risk of transmission to human. Therefore, we reviewed the literatures on Q fever to highlight the epidemiology, diagnostic tests used in identifying C. burnetii and public health impact of Q fever as a basis for designing effective control strategies.