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Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances
  Year: 2015 | Volume: 10 | Issue: 9 | Page No.: 476-488
DOI: 10.3923/ajava.2015.476.488
 
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Augmentation of Milk Production by Supplementing Bypass Fat in Dairy Animals

Mahendra Singh, A.K. Roy and Shikha Sharma

Abstract:
Pregnancy and lactation are the physiological states which modify metabolism in animals and induce stress. The period of transition between late pregnancy (-3 weeks) and early lactation (+3 weeks) presents huge metabolic challenges in terms of energy balance, plasma metabolites and hormonal changes. High rates of Body Condition Score (BCS) losses are associated with a severe negative energy balance conditions immediately after the calving. Energy deficiency due to decreased dry matter intake during the periparturient period results in increased lipolysis of body fat. The release of non-esterified fatty acids and higher β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations are indicative of lipid mobilization and fatty acid oxidation. Animals have to utilize their body reserves to support lactogenesis and milk production resulting in metabolic disorders and sub-optimal milk yield under these conditions. Most of the lactating animals are fed crop residues in the tropical countries, which are generally low in energy, protein and minerals. Increased amount of energy secreted into milk fat and lesser feed intake puts high yielder cows and buffaloes in negative energy balance (NEBAL), metabolic disorders and suboptimal milk production. Maximizing the energy intake by increasing the energy density of diet is a logical feeding strategy during transition period and in early lactating animals. Feeding large amounts of cereal grains decrease ruminal pH, ruminal fiber digestibility, acetate/propionate ratio, milk fat concentration and increase the risk of ruminal acidosis. Scientific interventions have been carried out from time to improve energy balance by supplementing bypass fat and proteins. Bypass fats are commonly referred to as ruminal inert fat, protected fat and escape fat and are more expensive per unit of energy provided compared to commodity fats. Calcium salts of fatty acids increase milk yield and fat contents but partially degrade in the abomassum. Prill fat, a bypass fat is available in different forms and augments productive performance of lactating animals by getting digested in the small intestine. However response varies depending upon the milk production levels and the body condition of animals. The present review discusses the role of bypass fat in enhancing the milk production performance and its effect on hormones, digestibility coefficients and energy balance.
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How to cite this article:

Mahendra Singh, A.K. Roy and Shikha Sharma, 2015. Augmentation of Milk Production by Supplementing Bypass Fat in Dairy Animals. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 10: 476-488.

DOI: 10.3923/ajava.2015.476.488

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ajava.2015.476.488

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