The aim of this study was to project the importance and significance of goat milk and milk products with special reference to India. Goats are important component of livestock industry and play a vital role in the socio-economic structure of rural poor. South Asian countries including India, Bangladesh and Pakistan are the major producers of goat milk, whereas, in Europe the most developed dairy goat industry is in France, Greece, Spain and Italy. Indian breeds such as Jamunapuri, Barbari, Beetal, Surti, Jakhrana produce fairly good amount of milk. Goats in Greece and Sardinia produce milk with higher level of total solids, fat and protein. Breeds like Alpine and Saanen produce milk with lower fat, protein and casein contents. Goat milk contains higher amount of Ca, Mg and P than cow and human milk but vitamin D, vitamin B12 and folate contents are less. Goat milk is recommended for infants, old and convalescent people. Three fatty acids viz., caproic, caprylic and capric have great medicinal values for patients suffering from a variety of ailments. In this review we have discussed the goat population and goat milk production, gross composition with nutritive value in terms of energy, minerals and vitamin contents goat milk, details fraction of protein and fat, characteristics of goat milk, medicinal value of goat milk, goat milk products and marketing potential of goat milk and milk products.