A study on large wild mammals, livestock and pack animals, settlement and agriculture was carried out in two afromontane habitat fragments; Kaka and Hunkolo from August, 2008 to March, 2009. In Kaka, the study area was stratified into four habitat types (afroalpine, Erica, agricultural land and Riverine forest) and in Hunkolo, three habitat types (afroalpine, Erica and agricultural land). A total of 18 species of large wild mammals were recorded in Kaka and 7 species in Hunkolo. These were: Tragelaphus buxtoni, Tragelaphus scriptus, Oreotragus oreotragus, Tragelaphus scriptus meneliki, Phacochoerus africanus, Sylvicapra grimmia, Canis aureus, Felis serval, Crocuta crocuta, Redunca fulvorufula, Canis simensis, Lepus starcki, Lepus habessinicus, Panthera pardus, Herpestes ichneumon, Civettictis civetta, Genetta genetta and Orycteropus afer in Kaka and Sylvicapra grimmia, Canis aureus, Felis serval, Lepus starcki, Herpestes ichneumon, Genetta genetta and Orycteropus afer in Hunkolo. The highest large wild mammal diversity was observed in the afroalpine (Diversity = 0.799) habitat in Kaka, whereas, in Hunkolo, this was in the Erica scrub (Diversity = 0.711). The lowest diversity was observed in the Erica (Diversity = 0.677) in Kaka and afroalpine (Diversity = 0.588) habitat in Hunkolo. Livestock was the most frequently sighted animal in both Kaka and Hunkolo. Settlements and agriculture were common up to an altitude of 3500 m above sea level. The highest human population density was 616 km-2 in the lower altitudes which declines with increase in altitude.