It is a longtime that under development in homogeneity, in equilibrium, oscillation
of economic development in Iran have given rise to some expansionism, items
of fathoming and those of planning the consequences which of proved undesirable
in this field. War, drought, regulatory barriers, inflation, economic sanctions,
in stabilized exchanges and etc. are fundamental factors that hindered economic
progression. The available wide-ranging natural resources human and material
assets and skillful and much experienced people in this country can nullity
largely this mentality. This adds up to this approach to believe the fact that
a fundamental and potential inefficiency in underdevelopment is rooted to a
large in the undesirable economic culture and also in export. Surveys conducted
in this area have revealed that the guidelines for extrovert economic development
with more often rooted in goods and services export have provided efficient
achievements for human beings (Srinivas and Leslie, 2001).
Examples of such guidelines and economic achievements are some Asian states
such as South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore and China. However, Iran backwardness
of this convoy of development and economic development can bring about no suspicion
except saying the fact that Iran and Iranian are deleteriously injured by export
culture in this process (Balassa, 1985). The response
to this question whether we have to choose export expansion strategy by dispensing
with import to a large extent requires to introduce and throwing light on some
||For years economists have proposed (most often recommended)
error testing in leading an extrovert economic development under todays
conditions because the suggested strategy that replaced import failed in
||Dependency of any nation on its uni-product (single-product) economy ends
unhappily because this product both draws to its end and may face bad competition.
In addition, coming generations will be deprived of their rights of it.
It is, therefore, more rational to pursue to develop multi-product production
process. For example, Malaysia that tended to produce caoutchouc or rubber
and somehow tin was considered a under developed country by 1950 but today
is dewed to be a powerful economic country in both eastern and south eastern
Asia thanks to its multi-disciplined exports. The export stock of Iran (IR
of Iran) as compared with the total export of world is nearly 0/35% if oil
export is included. But this figure gets down to 0/8% with oil excluded
that can be construed as a tragedy at a major (macro) level. Above all,
with calculated non-oil export, a major part of this typical export is regarded
During recent years when most world nations-as embedded in those of Southeastern
Asia-ever increasingly scaled up the stairs of progression, Iranian oil export
desperately faced a typical numbness. For example, 835 million US dollars from
1970 and that of Taiwan to 100.70 billion US dollars from 1.4 billion US dollars,
while Iranian non-oil exports had reached about 3 billion US dollars in 1996
from 540 m USAs in 1976 (http://www.iranembassy.com.pt/fa/Docs/endoc/Non%
Iran is not an impoverished land. It has unequalled decorative stones in the
world, most durable and best quality of saffron, the best quality and most quantity
of caviar, the greatest oil and gas reserves in terms of oil products. Furthermore,
Iran has the most young population of the world (relative mean of which is 25
years of age), 10 climates out of 12 of the world, 90% of worlds explored
elements and etc., but it is shameful to say that it has about only 0/3% non-oil
exports of south Korea while having 17 times as many as the area covering south
Korea and about 0/4% of non-oil export of Singapore while covers an area as
many as 23000 times of that country and also while Iran ranks higher from the
point of view of gas, nature resources and geographical locations than them
A non-oil export expansion choice not only brings a wide range of economic revenues and foreign exchanges, but also allows a nation to remedy various problems such as inflation, unemployment, social losses and damages and etc. and also can grant us an agricultural prosperity, enabling services and national authority if improved by industrial spinning wheel.
As history of the world testifies and virtually affirms, there are two forces that substantially contributed to the development of any land these are:
Flourished talents: By using this model for our judgment and by most
carefully investigating the positions of capabilities and latent capacities
as exist in our country (Iran), we clearly find that there is no vacuum or bottleneck
whatsoever in this area. What truly seems more critical is lack of knowledge
how to take advantage of these capabilities that actually account more significantly
for another issue that occurs to ones mind the introverting or intuiting
of which can solve the fundamental problem of non-oil export development (Balassa,
1985). It is beyond doubt the non-existence of profitability culture, correct
model of consumption, competition, tendency to law giving, labor culture and
etc. are seriously sensible and I daresay that once this vacuum has been removed,
a unique contribution will be made to develop this area and flourish the honor
of this country. It is, therefore, prudent that if we suppose the non-oil export
development to be a national dilemma in our present society.
It is evident that in this age of blown-up communication and information, we can exactly see that how much national media are on the rise-a claim that is exceedingly factual from theoretical perspective and as far as evidence shows-the same thing that Rolan Barret refers to it as myth-making, Louis Althusar as co-existence or co-substantiality, Mac Lohan as a world village (hamlet), Mac Cleland as ones willing and inclination to advance, overrate Rogers as propagationalism, Sisji Hamming as know-how and caution or cautiousness and Paolo Kharir as salvation of man from monotonousness of data processes. The effectiveness of medias in culture development in order to develop non-oil export seems more logical and rational than any other function and element. Therefore, I made up my mind to inquire after the roles the media can play in culture raising for export expansion.
There are some approaches to the area of the effects the mass media had on
||Behaviouristic approach the basis of which the media are assumed
to do what they wish and enjoy extraordinary powers to which the addressee
||The approaches that the mentors have on the basis of which they believe
a two-way of message decimation. In the first instance, the message reaches
to elites and enlightened leaders and once they have analyzed them,
they are used by common addressees. Based on this approach, the addressee
is not affected or passive but enjoys a power to choose
||Cultural approach which based on Gorbands theory sees world addressees
on the screen of T.V having contending force and highlighting power, the
media can internalize many components
||Approaches showed by addresses which correspond and apply to the environment
and cultures of addressees and which concern the addressees consent
and pleasing addresses
Deals with the scheme and foundations of research it also discusses the nature
of culture, which also includes communication and development approaches (Lemer,
2001; McQuail, 2005; Tehranian,
1977). Seeks to prove that major part of problems and difficulties as exist
in non-oil export underdevelopment has roots in culture. This section defines
in detail the export culture and finally deals with the cultural phases and
indexes of export expansion. Discusses the media, cultural substratum, media
and culture (Schein, 2004). Nurturing, communication processes
elements, the roles and responsibilities of media and finally techniques and
tactics of national media for culture development that has anything to do with
export development. A part of the research is in the form of a field research
study where the degrees the media have influenced, the rate in which cultural
indexes (indices) are enjoyed by models, export development, the correlations
of these indices with measured media have been described and analyzed.
Problem scheme and object of research: The analysis of relationship between mass media, culture and non-oil export development reveal many effectiveness and complicated but fruitful results in the process of this typical development. The question, however, rises how we can take advantage of these parameters to resolve cultural problems in developing export. Generally, speaking, mutual relationship, media agents, cultural elements and considerable results in the area of development are to be identified. Where are they, indeed? What can be drawn up in this study is in the first place introducing a mutual relationship between cultural factors that are both structured and structuring the media and in the second place a mutual relationship between cultural and non-cultural factors in expanding non-oil export in Iran.
For example, it is obvious that there is a relationship among beliefs, convictions, traditions and some of production methods. There are norms that govern ones family life and administrative, occupational, managerial and
concerns. Economic life of a community can influence the cultural values and be influenced by them. In addition, the social and economic ways of life, one important issue in this area is a dynamic development culture the roots of which have been implanted in exciting values of the present culture of a special community that is impressed by multifarious factors such as mass media. Acquiring knowledge, approaches and socio-cultural behaviors serve the most fundamental needs in any economic and cultural planning and continue identifying their future changes. While, this is very important, by now in Iran it has not been well and continuously regarded by national R and D departments. On the other hand, the fact that cultural factors such as mass media can create and re-build a constructive culture for non-oil export development, in order to be able to advance our present community and put it in such a stable development based on a relatively accurate and harmonious plan as far as possible and avoid allowing its different dimensions (desirable or otherwise) to be affected by predictable events and otherwise, we must realize first of all that under what conditions are our non-oil exports. Thirdly where do the places of cultural variables in export development? Fourth, on what factors do any of cultural variables depend? And fifth, what roles do media play in changing and creating export culture and what kind of bases do they have? To achieve this purpose, it is necessary to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, opinions and proposals expressed by the targeted addresses so that on the basis of which and helped by descriptive and analytical statistical methods we would be able to find good practices. Exploratory methods based on precedent researches, different informational and economic data, the authors suppositions and conceptions impressed by wide ranges of study, discussion with informed and expert individuals indicate that the non-existence of a good culture in other words, it is over- emphasized that culture plays an effective part in export development and growth.
On the other hand, mass media can play a drastic part in stabilizing and consolidating export culture (Fig. 1). Nevertheless, we are going to consider the fact that how the media can provide good stratums for the emergence of a culture to grow and expand non-oil exports in Iran. On this stimulus, we have intended to delve into different periods of time in which non-oil exports have been undertaken. We also intend to find weaknesses and strengths cultural point of view. What is more, we want to throw light on good cultural factors to improve export culture and identity the roles the mass media can play in this process.
The need and importance to undertake this research study: Export is
a very complicated but highly delicate activity. Non-oil export development
is not an easy task. Many geed factors and conditions are required to produce,
export and sell goods and services to foreign customers. Not only it is imperative
to win the consents of foreign customers to the quality, price, supplying positions
and marketing and after-the-sale- products, but also it is inevitable to undertake
all competitions with harsh rivals, skillful and experienced competitors who
live and work in other countries. As far as imports are concerned, we, as purchasers,
surpass others in export with better positions than them.
|| Mass media and stabilizing and consolidating export culture
Not counting two or more items of goods-such as pistachio and carpets (most
regretfully it is to be said that we even failed to compete for reasons)- we
face severe problems and difficulties as regards other items of export in particular
those of industrial or technological. With no study on such problems and bottlenecks
and failing to continuously inquire after the exporting markets and non-oil
export facilities, it would be impossible to develop export. In the interim,
it is vital to scrutinize and analyze carefully what caused this qualitative
and quantitative underdevelopment of non-oil exports which seems to account
for some unexpected and unexampled approaches or conflicting attitudes in this
Developing countries that export goods and services tend to assign in their economic development strategy a wide range of resources to expand their commercial, scientific, technical and cultural researches. These researches have detected many short and long-term production advantages while finding the roots of export problem and offering know-hows to exporters and importers. They have also recommended some opener ways to expand export that they will be reviewed and analyzed in administrative stages by necessarily supervising the processes. Out ward looking strategy: this strategy is based on the expansion and encouragement of export, services and resources sector that currently possess productive facilities while enjoying relative advantages especially those of competition; that is to say this strategy can provide national economic interests by augmenting the varieties of exports and obtaining more and more exchange incomes.
According to Nollis Chenery, non-oil exports conducted by developing countries not only act as sources of economic growth but are also effective in satisfying their exchange needs.
He holds that what must be considered in the policy of expanding export are
the mechanism and basic things as observed in the market, because otherwise
the market would fail (get now here in international markets and as a result,
economic development would also fail. Out of several different Asian countries,
three states such as Taiwan, Singapore and South Korea implemented export development
strategy between 1960-73 by using policies and concepts including a de-centralized
control strategy. They obtained the best results by exporting industrial and
technological products. For example, South Korea could reach herself within
a period of less than 30 years from an intense poverty to an exceptional relatively
high growth. During 20 years, 1970-1990, South Korea developed her non-oil exports
from 835 million US dollars to 64956 US dollars, Taiwan from 1400 m US dollars
to 70.000 m US dollars, Malaysia from 1700 m US dollars to 29400 m US dollars
Hong Kong from 2500 m US dollars to 8200 m US dollars, while Iran (I.R of Iran)
Could develop her non-oil exports from 540 m US dollars 1976 to 3120 m US dollars
in 1996 (Adelman and Morris, 1980).
Having many natural different potentialities and capacities and those of climatic and human, she only how possess 0/57% of world exports with oil counted and 0/8% of it with oil not counted. And this is, most desperately, beyond a normal problem.
A cohort of economists including crane cross believe that the developing state
have to use what they have to get their economies advanced. By selecting a strategy
to develop non-oil exports:
||State can be released from import dependency and approached
the border of self-sufficiency
||Causes the required exchanges to be provided for home and domestic costs
||Heightens its national competition level
||Provider essential stimuli to improve the quality of goods and services
and so lower the price
||Dwindles our national dependency on oil only that is our single product
||Contributes to the development and growth of economy and brings welfare
to the community
||Promotes national economic, cultural, political positions and reputations
in interacting with other countries
A good glance at Iranian trade balance sheet and comparing it with other countries
show that a 26b USD income obtained from export and 21 b USD income from import
manifests a positive 5 b USD balance sheet. However, the case is not to believe
that our balance sheet in trade is 15 b USDs once oil export is omitted.
To say the least, if our non-oil export has the same rate as import does, then
we can say that there will emerge a relative balance in our economic.
The world trade growth was about 84% during 1990s-2000 and Iran had such a figure only 11%, while at the same time, Turkey has 118% and Pakistan 42% of this growth. Nevertheless, we will be having a deplorable position (Iranian embassy Reports).
Given plenty of privileges such as natural resources, varied items, extraordinarily excellent situations of transit and strategy and etc
. the 08% shave and stock we have in world export ensure to make us more deplorable. Then, we must be ready to serve willingly, think and work unceasingly. Of course, some research has been done and it requires more work to be done. Based on available evidence and as research literature demonstrate it, the basic issue here is nothing but culture. Non-existent export culture in management areas, production, export, marketing and etc. have caused Iran to unconceivable lose or degrade her base as compared to other countries.
The available position of non-oil export as a national problem and the fact that the improvement and consolidation of export culture in order to grow and develop non-oil export are impressive and can affect most considerably required me to delve into the influentially and impressibility of mass media (Radio, TV and press) in developing, modifying, creating and maintaining this typical culture. It is, therefore, necessary for other media to provide background for a non-oil export culture. This made, the role and importance of research topic will be made more and more clear and transparent.
Some issues with intention of changing the strategies of export development in line with magnetizing embossing the element of culture by utilizing the media facilities and tools have been investigated in the present study. The proof of this theory that manifestation of phenomena "promoted export" and qualitative and quantitative growth of non- oil exports has rooted in exporting culture range and organizing all direction communicational process and multiple reliant on sources and competence transmitter senders and attractive media will cause transverse of this range is a part of this research.