Proximate Composition, Mineral Elements and Anti-Nutritional Factors of Anisopus mannii N.E.Br. (Asclepiadaceae)
Biochemical studies with a view to assess the nutritional
potentials of Anisopus mannii were carried out by evaluating the
proximate composition, mineral elements and anti-nutritional content of
the plant. The results showed that the total oxalates, free cyanides,
tannins and total cyanides were found to be present at 0.70 Â± 0.5,
6.50 Â± 0.41, 10.55 Â± 0.01 and 12.41 Â± 7.19%, respectively.
However, concentration of phytate was very low (0.017 Â± 0.00%).
Proximate compositions of the plant showed a rich source of crude protein
(8.40 Â± 0.17%), fats (8.67 Â± 0.63%), carbohydrates (72.57
Â± 0.68%) and total ash (10.36 Â± 0.22%). The plant was also
found to contain the following essential minerals: potassium (1700 mg/100
g), calcium (1280 mg/100 g), iron (156 mg/100 g), vanadium (102 mg/100
g), chromium (53.90 mg/100 g), zinc (0.874 mg/100 g), copper (1.43 mg/100
g) and manganese (36.60 mg/100 g). The results of this research indicated
that Anisopus mannii has nutritional qualities that could provide
the users with additional nutrients for enhanced curative process of ill
Plants have played significant roles in maintaining the health and promoting
the quality of human life for thousands of years. The majority of the
earth`s inhabitants in the developing world rely on traditional medicine
for their primary health care needs and a major part of this therapy involves
the use of plants, plant extracts or their active principles (Craig, 2001).
In Northern Nigeria many indigenous plants are widely consumed as food
or home remedies especially in the treatment or management of common diseases
such as digestive problems, headache, cough and cold, diabetes and pile.
Anisopus mannii (Asclepiadaceae) is a glabrous twining shrub with
leaves petiole, elliptic, ovate and shortly cuspidate at apex up to 15
cm or more long and 12 cm broad and the stem twining to a height of 3.7-4.6
cm (Hutchinson and Dalziel, 1963). The plant is known as kashe zaki (Hausa)
meaning destroying sweetness. It is a familiar herb in the traditional
medicinal preparations across Northern Nigeria, where a decoction of the
whole plant is used as remedy for diabetes mellitus, diarrhea and pile.
However, very little information exist on the inorganic elements constituents
of the plant and the role they may play in traditional medicine. It is
an established fact that there is a relationship between chelation of
metals and some chemotherapeutic agents. The role of inorganic elements
in animal and plant metabolism has long been established, but the effect
and influences of these elements on administration of medicinal plants
has received relatively little attention (Saiki et al., 1990; Xio
and Qin, 1990; Dim et al., 2004). This study was designed to evaluate
the proximate compositions, mineral elements and anti-nutritional factors
of Anisopus mannii with a view to assess the nutritional potentials
of the plant in relation to its uses.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Whole plant of Anisopus mannii was collected in February 2006
at Samaru along Giwa road, Zaria. The plant was taxonomically authenticated
and specimen (Voucher No. 217) of the sample deposited at the Herbarium,
Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
The sample was washed with double distilled water; air dried, (except
for moisture content) ground to powder (using mortar and pestle) and made
to pass through 1.00 m mesh sieve size (for XRF analysis).
Proximate and Anti-Nutritional Analysis
The proximate compositions and toxic anti-nutritional factors of the
sample (crude protein, crude fat, moisture content, crude fibre, ash content,
soluble carbohydrate, total carbohydrate, phytates, tannins, free cyanides,
soluble oxalates and total oxalates) were determined according to the
standard methods as recommended by the Association of Official Analytical
Chemists (AOAC, 1990).
Mineral Elements Determination
The mineral element determination was carried out using Energy Dispersive
X-ray Fluorescence analysis (ED-XRF). Pellets of the powdered sample were
prepared by taking about 0.500 g and pressed at about 10 tonnes with a
hydraulic press. Measurements were then taken using annular 25 m Ci109
Cd as the exciting source that emits Ag-K X-rays (22.1 KeV) in which case
all elements with lower excitation were detected. The quantitative analysis
of the samples was carried out using Emission-Transmission (E-T) method.
It consist of SILENA model 12170 Lithium drifted selenium Se (Li) detector
with a resolution of 170 for 5.90 kev line coupled to a computer controlled
Analog Digital Converter (ADC) card. The system utilizes the MAESTRO software
for spectral acquisition, peak location, energy assignment, elemental
identification, smoothening, background subtraction and normalization
as well as the AXIL software for quantification of the acquired spectra
(Bernasconi et al., 1996).
All determinations were replicated three times and results were reported
as Mean Â± SD.
The results from the proximate analysis of A. mannii showed that
crude fibre was higher with 89.64 Â± 0.22% followed by total carbohydrate
content 72.57 Â± 0.68%. The crude protein content was 8.40 Â±
0.17%; moisture content was 8.41 Â± 0.02%, soluble carbohydrates
7.94 Â± 0.15% whereas total fat and ash content were 8.67 Â±
0.63 and 10.36 Â± 0.22%, respectively (Table 1).
The toxic anti nutritional components of the plant showed that total cyanide
content was higher (12.41 Â± 7.19%) followed by tannins (10.55 Â±
0.01%), free cyanide (6.50 Â± 0.41%), total oxalates (0.79 Â±
0.5%) and soluble oxalates (0.34 Â± 0.16%); with phytate content
(0.017 Â± 0.00%) being the least (Table 2). The
mineral analysis indicates that the concentration of macro minerals; potassium
(1700 mg/100 g) and calcium (1280 mg/100 g) were the highest. Other minerals
detected in reasonable amounts were iron (156 mg/100 g), vanadium (102
mg/100 g), chromium (53.90 mg/100 g) and manganese (36.60 mg/100 g). The
concentrations of zinc, copper and lead were the least (Table
|| Proximate composition of Anisopus mannii
|| Mineral element composition of Anisopus mannii
The results of proximate analysis showed a high content of crude fibre
and total carbohydrate (Table 1). Food fibres have been
reported to aid absorption of trace elements in the gut (Kelsey, 1981)
and reduce absorption of cholesterol (Leveille and Sauberlich, 1966).
The amount or composition of crude protein (8.40 Â± 0.17%) and ash
content (10.36 Â± 0.22%) compared favourably with and in most cases
surpassed those reported for most medicinal plants (Abolaji et al.,
2007; Odoemena and Ekpo, 2005) This is indicative of the potential benefit
of Anisopus mannii as proteins are essential for the synthesis
of body tissues and regulatory substances such as enzymes and hormones
(Vaughan and Judd, 2003). The moisture content analyzed was low (8.41
Â± 0.02%) compared to that of a medicinal plant Nypa fructican
as reported by Odoemena and Ekpo (2005), in which the moisture content
for leaf (50.19 Â± 0.33%), stem (63.51 Â± 0.54%) and root
(29.19 Â± 0.94%) were obtained. High moisture content promotes susceptibility
to microbial growth and enzyme activity (Adejumo and Awosanya, 2005).
The nutritional importance of a given food or vegetable depends on the
nutrients or anti-nutritional constituents (Aletor and Omodara, 1994).
The values for oxalate and phytate determined for A. mannii (Table
2) were quite lower than 18.09 Â± 2.29 mg/100 g (oxalates) and
96.40 Â± 0.20 mg/100 g (phytates) as reported for Caesalpina
pulcherrima (Pride of Barbados) (Prohp et al., 2006). The total
cyanide content determined was also lower than 21.60 Â± 1.43 mg/100
g reported for leaf of Nypa fructicans (Odoemena and Ekpo, 2005).
High concentrations of anti-nutrients such as phytate and oxalates have
been known to exert substantial effects on mineral bioavailability in
foods (Weaver and Kannan, 2002). Oxalate salts are poorly soluble at intestinal
pH and oxalic acid is known to decrease Ca absorption in monogastric animals
(Allen, 1982). These anti-nutrients form complexes with nutritionally
important minerals such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+,
Fe2+, Mn2+, Co2+ and Zn2+
thereby preventing efficient absorption by the body systems (Aletor and
The results of nutritionally valuable minerals showed that Anisopus
mannii was rich in potassium (1700 mg/100 g) and calcium (1280 mg/100
g). These concentrations are higher than those obtained from the leaves
of Boerhavia diffusa (potassium 0.91 Â± 0.07 mg/100 g and
calcium 174.09 Â± 2.73 mg/100 g) and Commelina nudiflora
(potassium 0.78 Â± 0.08 mg/100 g and calcium 240.00 Â± 4.14
mg/100 g ) as reported by Ujowundu et al. (2008). The biological
roles for K and Ca are essential for disease prevention and control and
may, therefore, contribute to some of the traditional medicinal influences
of the plant. Iron, manganese and zinc, present in the plant at 156 ,
36.60 and 8.74 mg/100 g concentrations, respectively, are three essential
elements in enzyme metabolism. The importance of iron in maintaining good
health has been recognized (Vaughan and Judd, 2003). Manganese is an important
modulator of cells functions and play a vital role in the control of diabetes
(Korc, 1988). This is one of the illness for which A. mannii is
traditionally used to remedy.
The concentration of lead (17.60 mg/100 g) in A. mannii is quite
higher when compared to concentration of 2.71 Â± 0.14 mg kg-1
obtained for Caesalpina pulcherrima (Pride of Barbados) as reported
by Prohp et al. (2006). This should be of concern in traditional
medicinal therapy because of lead toxicity even at low concentration.
However, using the proximate analysis, the mineral content and toxic anti-nutritional
factors as approximate indices of nutritional quality, it showed that
the plant Anisopus mannii hold tremendous promise in providing
the protein and mineral supply that could enhance the curative process
of ill health. These findings provide biochemical as well as trace metals
profiles which are important in understanding the pharmacological and/or
toxicological actions of the medicinal plant. Further studies will concentrate
on the use of extracts of A. mannii on laboratory animals in order
to determine their metabolic effects.
We are grateful to the authority of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, for
providing the facilities for conducting this research and also to Johnson
Sesan Oguntuberu and Joy Aladi Onoja for the technical assistance.
AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 200-210.
Abolaji, O.A., A.H. Adebayo and O.S. Odesanmi, 2007. Nutritional qualities of three medicinal plant parts (Xylopia aethiopica, Blighia sapida and Parinari polyandra) commonly used by pregnant women in the western part of Nigeria. Pak. J. Nutr., 6: 665-668.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Adejumo, T.O. and O.B. Awosanya, 2005. Proximate and mineral composition of four edible mushroom species from South Western Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 4: 1084-1088.
Direct Link |
Aletor, V.A. and O.A. Omodara, 1994. Studies on some leguminous browse plants with particular reference to their proximate, mineral and some endogenous anti-nutritional constituents. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 46: 343-348.
Direct Link |
Allen, L.K., 1982. Calcium bioavailability and absorption: A review. Amer. J. Clin. Nutr., 35: 783-808.
Bernasconi, G.B., S.A. Bamford, B. Dosan, N. Haselberger, A. Markowicz, A. Mahmoud and V. Valcovic, 1996. Applicability of annular source excited systems in quantitative X-ray analysis. X-ray Spectrom., 23: 65-70.
Direct Link |
Craig, W.J., 2001. Health Promoting Herbs as Useful Adjunct to Prevent Chronic Diseases. In: Nutritional Health: Strategy for Disease Prevention. Wilson, T. and N.J. Temple (Eds.). Humana Press Inc., New Jersey, ISBN: 0-89603-864-5, pp: 237.
Dim, L.A., I.I. Funtua, A.O. Oyewale, F. Grass, I.M. Umar, R. Gwozdz and U.S. Gwarzo, 2004. Determination of some elements in Argeratum conyziodes, a tropical medicinal plant, using instrumental neutron activation analysis. J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 261: 225-228.
Hutchinson, J. and J.M. Dalziel, 1963. Flora of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edn., Crown Agents for Overseas Government and Administration, London, ISBN: 0-85592-020-3, pp: 23-27.
Kelsay, J.L., 1981. Effects of diet fiber level on bowel function and trace mineral balances of human subjects. Cereal Chem., 58: 2-5.
Korc, M., 1988. Manganese Homeostasis in Human and its Role in Disease States. In: Essential and Toxic Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease. Prasad, A.S. (Ed.). Alan R. Liss Inc., New York, ISBN-10:0471614491.
Leveille, G.A. and H.E. Sauberlich, 1966. Mechanism of the cholesterol-depressing effect of pecting in the cholesterol-fed rat. J. Nutr., 88: 209-214.
Direct Link |
Odoemena, C.S.I. and B.A.J. Ekpo, 2005. Phytotherapeutic potentials and biochemical study of Nypa fructicans (Wurmb). J. Pharm. Bioresour., 2: 89-92.
Direct Link |
Prohp, T.P., I.G. Ihimire, A.O., Madusha, H.O., Okpala, J.O. Erebor and C.A. Oyinbo, 2006. Some anti-nutritional and mineral contents of extra-cotyledonous deposit of pride of barbados (Caesalpina pulcherrima). Pak. J. Nutr., 5: 114-116.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Saiki, M., M.B. Vasconcellos and T.A.A. Sertie, 1990. Determination of Essential Trace Elements in Some Traditional Chinese Medicines. In: Nuclear Analytical Methods in the Life Sciences, Zeisler, R. and V.P. Guinn (Eds.). Humana Press, New Jersey, ISBN: 0-8960-3202-7.
Ujowundu, C.O., C.U. Igwe, V.H.A. Enemor, L.A. Nwaogu and O.E. Okafor, 2008. Nutritive and anti-nutritive properties of Boerhavia diffusa and Commelina nudiflora leaves. Pak. J. Nutr., 7: 90-92.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Vaughan, J.G. and P.A. Judd, 2003. The Oxford Book of Health Foods: A Comprehensive Guide to Natural Remedies. 1st Edn., Oxford University Press, New York, USA., pp: 17.
Weaver, C.M. and S. Kannan, 2002. Phytate and Mineral Bioavailability. In: Food Phytates, Reddy, N.R. and S.K. Sathe (Eds.). CRC Press, Boca Raton Florida, ISBN: 156676-867-5.
Xio, L. and J.F. Qin, 1990. PIXE Determination of Essential Trace Elements in Some Traditional Chinese Medicines. In: Nuclear Analytical Methods in the Life Sciences, Zeisler, R. and V.P. Guinn, (Eds.). Humana Press, New Jersey, ISBN: 0-8960-3202-7, pp: 751.