The Application of GIS in Selection of Suitable Species for Afforestation in Southern Forest of Caspian Sea
The present study is conducted at the Shemroud water shade, Guilan province, which is located in north region of Iran. In order to investigation on ecological requirement of 16 species using GIS, the environmental conditions were determined in study site including elevation, slope, aspect, climate and soil. With concerning of importance of their categories, t he maps were classified with range of 1 to 9. The suitable environmental conditions for growth species assigned 9 value and unsuitable conditions for growth species assigned lower values gradually. Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, the maps were weighted with regard to mentioned affecting factors. Obtained results showed that there is different appearance for ecological range in per species. Finally, it was extracted final map model for afforestation using mathematical relationships and merging ecological models for each species.
A sustainable ecosystem might be defined as one that continuously provides
its services needed by the current and future generations of humans and other
life forms (Vavra, 1996). The suitable species selection
for afforestation is one of the most important factors in afforestationin order
to development and interplanting of forest. The miss-selection of suitable species
according to edaphically climate and site conditions had not been producing
desired issue or mostly the species would be destroyed. Given the importance
of the afforestation in different grounds, planting species out and forest interplanting
should be given priority, according to environmental capability of each region.
Changes in species diversity, structural diversity and the abundance of non-native
species are common concerns that are part of the international criteria for
assessing sustainability of forestry practices. Because vegetation is the source
of primary production for habitat, changes in the distribution of vegetation
can be affected on many elements of an ecosystem (Kerns
and Ohmann, 2004). Accordingly, given the important of ensuring the protection
and continuation of this valuable heritage for future generation, afforestation
should be accompanied by a careful selection. If a careful selection was not
involved, the afforestation would not be efficient, the death of the planted
saplings would not be likely and the potential of the land would not be fully
explanted. Therefore, a region should be afforestated with suitable species
and it should finally fulfill the intended purposes. Zeng
et al. (2007) proposed decision support system for the evaluation
of long and short term dangerous of wind destruction at Boreal forests. Liu
et al. (2006) used a method based on Geographic information system
for the evaluation of optimal allocation of land at Qinling mountains of China
and they demonstrated that it must be classified into five applied classes in
the studied site including agriculture, forest, rangeland, wood culture- agriculture
and desert. Wakeel et al. (2005) show that the
forest covers varied with population increase and agriculture development in
central India at during 30 years and can replaced by afforestation with native
species. Shahadat and Kwei (2003) used geographic information
system for the suitable areas selection for the afforestation of Mangrove species
in coastal areas of Bangladesh. They showed that the Mangrove forests could
have existed in Bangladesh under both natural and artificial situations. Dilek
et al. (2007) investigated on the Golbasi specially protected area
in Ankara in order to afforestation using geographic information system. They
concluded that it should be investigated the hydrological landscape and erodibility
in studied sites in order to determination of the afforestation area and rapid
reaction for special area protection. Lie et al.
(2002) used the geographic information system as a targeting system for
creating of new woodland in association with existing ancient woodland in the
Chiltern Hills area of England. Gilliams et al. (2005)
reported capable of providing advice for policy and planning decisions for agriculture
land afforestation at European north-west. Monitoring of changes in the plant
species distribution can serve as indicators of undesirable impacts to ecosystem
(Vitousek et al., 1996), ecosystem stability,
the status of other organisms and ecosystem dynamics that are more difficult
for measurement (Daubenmire, 1976; Gray
and Azuma, 2005). In this reason, the suitable selection of species has
been lack to scientific criterions in the area and it result that waste of time
for suitable increment, soil erosion and economical losses. Thus, the Aim of
this research were selection of suitable species for afforestation in southern
forest of Caspian sea at 25 watershed based on nature of species, suitable places
in respect of edaphic, climatic and site for planting and interplanting using
geographic information system, Arc GIS software and definition layers. Until,
it used into suitable model for afforestation in the other sites.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Site of Study
Shemroud 25 watershed is one of the basins which ended to Caspian sea. It
is located 47 km far from province center (Rasht) and located in Eastern longitude
49 50 9 to 49 5022and Northern latitude 36 5521
to 37 0921. It is connected to Siahkal city. The whole watershed
perimeter was 72.10 square kilometer that has been allocated about 18961.81
ha. Shemroud basin surrounded by plain land and Siahkal from norths side,
Polroud watershed basin from souths side and Shalmanroud watershed basin
from the Wests side. This basin has been combined 13 hydrological sub
basins and 3 non-hydrological sub basins. The lowest height of the basin was
30 meter and highest height was 2100 m and average height was 775 m (Fig.
In Shemroud basins, first of all the maps of 1: 25000 are related to this
basin received of Iran survey organization and so have been figured. Information
of local station and power ministration has been used to drawing the isohytal
and isothermal maps. For preparing information of polygons with cover plant,
design forestry has been used in the site of study.
||Location of study area
The ecological needs of species has been used base on consultation and specialized judgment from forest experts and topological studies of local species. Then interplanted area determined without plants on the map in the form of information layer as polygons. These maps was prepared in order to specifying of the interplanted areas and suitable species in afforestation based on the site conditions which was the main aim of this research.
Afterwards, it was monitored the forests using GPS and controlled the ground
and then were analyzed the locations of Polygons especially the largest
polygon. Then, it was dominated ecological conditions of the site including
climatic, geology, pedology, height far from sea level, slope and aspect. The
available rural maps in the area serving were prepared as biotech factors through
different information layers. On the other side, ecological requirement of 16
forest plants (that they had the verge of extinction or had the most extent
of production in forest Nursery was extracted) which these parameters included
temperature, precipitation, soil type, height far from sea level, slope and
appropriate aspect of each species. The data were collected between April 2008
and June 2009. Firstly, for performance, required layers of vector format transformed
to Raster, then in order to categories into layers, they classified with range
of 0 to 9, based on ecological different requirements of species. So, suitable
conditions of species settlement assigned the 9 value and gradually assigned
lower values for unsuitable area and finally unsuitable area take 0 or 1 values
that actually do not interference in selected area. Then it was performed the
action of reclassification, in order to determination of a suitable model for
each species under spatial analyst (Longley et al.,
2005; Stillwell and Clarke, 2005) and it was selected
the Raster calculator choice and influential five layers along to selection
of those species which provided suitable model for each species by using Analytical
Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, the maps were weighted with regard to mentioned
affecting factors. A map provided with range of 1 to 9 by several categories,
according to previous expression, for any effective factors in selection of
species. Its natural that the role and effect of these factors is not
alike in selection of species. So, these factors should be weighted. The among
of weighting methods utilized the method of pair comparison, because of having
strong theory, high accuracy and facility for application base. In this method,
is formed a Metris comparison method and contrast as pair and their weights
||Flow chart of the study stages
In order to decreasing effect of personal ideas in weighting options of experts
were utilized regarding to proportional important effective factors. Contrasting
pair factors did using of Expert choice soft ware. At the end in order to make
the final model, the previous models were collected and the syntactic model
species were prepared as a single map (Fig. 2). In this study
the software Arc GIS 9.3 featuring high capability in information processing.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Given attention to provided maps, the effective factors in selection of species
(Fig. 3a-f, Table 1) is
classified based on ecological requirement of successful settlement after reclassify
of a given species which exist in Table 1. For example, 0-30%
slope of Alnus glutionsa take place in upper class (9) and slope with
higher than 100% in lowest class (1), aspect, N, NE, flat and NW in highest
class and rest of the aspect class take place in lowest class, 0-250 m height
of sea level in upper class and the height of more than 1800 m in lower class
(1). Also in the Isohyets map, rainfall of 800-1200 mm cited at upper class
and rainfall of 1500 mm the lowest class. At the end, types of soil, brown non
calcareous with Clay horizon and acid brown forest soil take place at upper
and ranker soils in lowest class. This classify was accomplished about other
15 suggested species. The result of weighting the effective factors on the selection
of species show those effective factors in planting is different for each species.
For example, slope, aspect, height, precipitation and type of soil factors about,
Alnus glutionsa with proportional weight was effective in order 0.1,
0.25, 0.2, 0.3, 0.15 but mention factors for Zelkova carpinifolia was
in order to 0.25, 0.1, 0.3, 0.1,0.25 in settlement of species. Therefore, share
of each environmental conditions queried as an effective weight in settlement
of each species at Fig. 4a-f as maps that
each of them is showing ecological range model (for example 6 species show at
It is possible structure the desired ecological conditions of many species settlement in a place. This indicates the common role of ecological particularities and appearance of species together and creating mixed forests. Finally, for introducing of several species that have capable of settlement at a given place, the final model is the sum of 16 species offered models based on the below equation.
||(a) Isohyets’ map, (b) isotherm map, (c) soil map, (d)
aspect map, (e) slope map and (f) without plant space map and rural points
in site of study
||(a) Model of ecological range for planting Alnus glutionsa
specie, (b) Zelkova carpinifolia (pall) Dipp, (c) Fraxinus excelsior L.,
(d) Acer cappadocicum Gled, (e) Juglans regia L. and (f) Tilia begonifolia
||Ecological requirements of species
||Type, code and abbreviation signs of species to final model
||Query of tree species planting in gap space by using of geographic
Which T is related to code for each species and n is varies from 2 to 16. Based
on the above equation, the sum of various codes would not be equal. Obtained
numbers is shown in Table 2. As a result 255 composite states
can be offered that are between 1to 63356. The final model has been shown in
Due to afforestation, selection of suitable species is one of the most fundamental
factors in the species growth at vacant lands. The obtained results regarding
species selection lead us for irreparable economical loss, since it was not
taking into consideration the natural factors role such as height, slope, aspect,
climate and soil and also site conditions. The primary reason for this conclusion
is lack of attention into the ecological requirements of the species and geographic
information system. In fact, different species have different ecological requirements.
Successful settlement of a species in a given region is dependent on the availability
of desired conditions or environment optimization, so these species have the
best growth. It is possible a species is not settled in a given region but it
doesnt have the suitable growth. The species selection for a forested
area should be based on all environmental conditions and the availability of
one condition is not enough to species planting. For example, suitable height
or soil for a specific species cannot be the primary criterion for species planting.
In fact, all environmental conditions, taking into consideration the effect
of these factors should be considered in species settlement. The effect of the
environmental factors are different for various species usually, determining
of suitable species for afforestation is not accomplished based on exact scientific
studies. To resolving of this problem, the new technologies, e.g., Geographic
Information System (GIS) can be used for processing and integration of information
and are suitable models for species (ecologic range). In this research, suitable
places for planting and interplanting are determined and suggested with respect
to edaphic, climate and site using Geographic Information System (GIS). Using
identify tools in Arc GIS 9.3 software, the composite presented based on the
sum of the models is observable for presentation of several species. Each of
them can be recognized with abbreviations. The suggestion of species for a region,
based on the ecological conditions provides specific possibility. It also provides
a possibility for experts who select the most desirable species from the presented
species based on their own experiences. It should be stated that the presented
models in this research were not presented any species for some without-plant
regions which are required more consideration. Meanwhile, the obtained results
are supported by the conducted researchers by Shahdat and Kwei (2003), Dilek
et al. (2007) and Lie et al. (2002).
That all of them emphasized on significant geographic information system as
the best instrument for determination of afforestation suitable species and
probable dangers investigation of disappear species. Investigating the possibility
of planting 16 species and extracting of Eq. 1 the sum of
suggested models (the presented model is to improve per species) was the characteristic
of our research that was not reported in previous studies.
But it should be taken into account that the best teacher is nature. Cammoner
(1971), the American ecologist, in his well-known book closing circle Nature,
Man and Technology rightly propones that Nature knows best. We applied this
approach i.e. and compared our obtained results with selected species in nature
by forests monitoring. We specified those conditions that existing species
was sampled and specified as land control points by GPS at more than 50 points
in the studied site. Obtained results are showed that in some regions, proposed
species were similar to the nature species. Some proposed species existed in
the past decades that is extinct or under danger of extinction and their planting
should be embarked upon in the nearest time. Also it can examine growth possibility
of new presented species in limited areas and then they recommend for planting
in the large surfaces. Finally, it can be found the biogeoclimate for each region
using specifying of the biotic influences i.e., far and proximity of village
(the information layers exist) and with taking into consideration social and
economical factors that are important factors of long-term duration at afforestation
after the correct selection of species for a region and specification of rapid
growth species to increasing of the income of people who inhabit in forests
in order to prevention of the destruction of forest land. With attention to
availability and production of information concerning suitable species, we can
suggested geographic information system technique can provide compatibility
with plantation environment, the protection of landscape and the maximum growth
at the minimum time. Ultimately, in this research, the select of suitable specie
for afforestation was implementing with data gathering in other to preparation
of natural factors map (climate, soil and planet), ecological requirement s
of species and overlay of layers by use of GIS Soft wares. So, it is suitable
tool in determining and targeting sites in other to existing new and ancient
woodland (Lie et al., 2002). we suggest it is
use other water-shed basins to prevention of heavy expenses and time waste.
Thanks to research Assistance of Islamic Azad university,Rasht branch,for the financial support.
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