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Research Article
The Impacts of Nigerian Training Programmes on Employees Performance

Akinyele Samuel Taiwo
 
ABSTRACT
The success of any business organization, whether in the private or public sectors, lies mainly in the quality of its human resources. Literature confirmed that training of manpower is a major prerequisite for any organisation who wants to achieve maximum productivity through the efficient and effective performance of employee. Employee can only perform better through the acquisition of skills, knowledge and ability from training programme. This paper attempts to find out whether staff training has any implication in job performance, behaviour, attitudes, skills, knowledge and achievement of the goals of a business organization in Nigeria. The sample size was determined on the basis of three categories of staff namely: general staff, senior staff and management staff. Chi-square was used to test the postulated hypothesis. The study shows that effective training leads to acquisition of skill and knowledge required for employee to perform effectively on the job. It was also revealed that training has a high positive impact on employee and reduces the nature of hazards on the job in the accomplishment of corporate objectives. Finally, the paper made recommendations, which aimed at improving the job performance of staff with regard to training.
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  How to cite this article:

Akinyele Samuel Taiwo , 2007. The Impacts of Nigerian Training Programmes on Employees Performance. Research Journal of Business Management, 1: 11-19.

DOI: 10.3923/rjbm.2007.11.19

URL: http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=rjbm.2007.11.19

INTRODUCTION

In recent times, countries of the world are becoming menacing aware that increasing economic growth is not only due to new technology or combination of factors of production only but also the development of its manpower resources. The human side of an enterprise is an important component of an organisation, where the enterprise can obtain the best of human capital for effective organizational performances (Desser, 2002; Perrewe and Kacmar, 1991; Wesley and Badwin, 1994; Gray and Iles, 2001; O’Connor and Mangan, 2004; Espedal, 2005; Gravin, 1993; Anao, 1993; Akinyele, 2005; Russ, 2005).

Many definitions have been given to the word Training. The concept means different connotations to people in different organization. According to Jeong (1995), Craig (1976), Zymelman (1990), Cohen (1990) Richard (1999) and Richard (2005) when there is difference or gap between actual performance and what is needed i.e., standard, productivity suffers. Training can reduce it, if it does not completely eliminate the gap. It does this through changes in behaviour of individuals by giving individuals whatever additional specific item of knowledge, skill or attitude they need to perform up to standard.

Training can also be defined as the process of applying appropriate educational methodology to those situations in which improved performance can result from effective learning (Peter and Bunce, 1995; Anthony and Kwanteng, 1995). The job of any worker is basically to bring about a desirable process or change to the organization. This job requires that the worker should know the adequate technical subject matter needed as well as have the ability to carry it out. In other words, the staff should be trained in the subject matter area as well as the communication techniques.

Flippo (1966) and Jeong (1995) in the same vein refers to training as an act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee so that he can do a job. So, training is an essential component of high performance in work systems, because these systems rely on frontline employee’s skill, knowledge and initiative to identify and resolve problems. All those require a skilled and motivated work force that has the knowledge and capability to perform the requisite tasks. In other words, training is an investment in the organization’s staff. A firm that invest a lot in training but considers its staff to be expendable cost to be quickly shed in time of economic difficulty, will probably see little return from its training investment.

Training must be a continuous activity in every organization and needs to be given priority when the going gets tough because it is the human resources of the organization that will take the actions necessary to turn the enterprise round (Robert et al., 1993).

Aderinto (1986) Robert and Robert (1992) and IITA (1995) maintains that training refers to those activities, which essentially aim at providing skills, knowledge and attitude required for employment in a particular occupation, group or related occupation or function in any dated field of occupation.

The views of the above authors agree on one important factor i.e., they all agree on training mainly in specific terms. In other words they conceive training only in terms of the acquisition of specific skill or skills by an individual for the purpose of performing a particular task and not all tasks. However, there are other writers who are of the view that training should not only be seen in terms of the acquisition of general skills and knowledge necessary to function within and outside the organization (Jeffery and Bunce, 1995).

One of the reason for the tremendous emphasis now placed on manpower training is derived from the current realization that human resources available to an organisation constitute the organisation building blocks. Despite this awareness, many of the training programs are not sufficiently supported by organisations and the required investment is sidelined. Many organisations meet the needs for training and development in an ad- hoc and haphard way, which make training in these organisations more or less unplanned and unsystematic.

Among the objectives of this study Include: to highlight training program that will maintain or improve the performance of the individual and in so doing that of the organisation; to evaluate inherent weaknesses and strength in staff training program; to determine the kinds of training needed b each cadre of staff and management in Nigeria organisations.

FORMS OF TRAINING PROGRAMMES IN NIGERIA

In training literature, two major forms of training employees in an organization have manifested. These are On the Job and Off the Job training. Both forms have generated a lot of controversy on which should take precedence over the other. This in essence, means that there is yet to be a consensus among scholars on the various ways to meet the needs of the organization. Most experts however, agreed that the terms themselves suggest what they mean.

On- The- Job Training
This is the method used to acquire specific skill while the individual is on the job. On- the- job training is required to improve the staff who had inadequate academic qualification for his job performance when he was employed specifically in a situation of acute manpower shortage. This is also regarded as training within industry or training within organizational policy.

The definition also suggests that on -the- job method is a specific form of job instruction. It imparts only those skill needed by the worker to perform a particular job competently. This is why it is mostly done inplant. However, it can be done outside the plant too. This specific form of training can both be formal and informal. Formal in the sense that, what is to be instructed is organized, manned or structured sequentially. These forms of training are:

Induction Training and
In- service Training

Induction Training
This is given to newly appointed staff immediately they are employed. This type of course is highly essential for newly recruited staff for the following reasons:

The new staff is protected from making costly mistakes.
It makes him understand the general objectives, scope, programmes, problems, policy and structure of the organization.
Induction courses are also very necessary for newly employed officers to enable them gain Self-confidence and perform better to meet the desired expectation. The period may vary from few days to a few weeks depending on the situation.

In-service Training
This is the typed of training which an officer or staff undertakes while he is still in the employment of an establishment institution. It is intended to update the officer’s activities at all levels.

According to William (1984) O’ Donnell and Garavan (1997) and Anao (1993) in- service training is necessary in such a dynamic field like modern agriculture in a developing country like Nigeria. He went further to say that it should be regarded as supplementary to rather than substitute for the formal study programme. This is particularly so when the formal training given will be getting outdated. It is usually impossible to learn all essential techniques required during the pre-services or induction-training period. The programme could be an informal agricultural training lasting two or more years.

Off-the - Job- Training
This is the type of professional training given to individual before they are appointed. It is usually carried out on full-time basis, in schools, colleges and even universities lasting through a specific period.

There are (3) levels of this professional training for individuals in Nigeria.

Non- Degree Training
First- Degree and
Postgraduate Training.
The Non- Degree Training is undertaken in two (2) stages. Firstly, the two (2) years Certificate course leading to ordinary diploma and then followed by another two (2) years Diploma course leading to National Diploma. In most cases a specific period of one or two Or more years of practical field experience is required between the OND and HND.
First degree courses involves taking basic courses involves taking basic courses in social, natural and agricultural science. Specialization increases speedily in a specific area until graduation in the last year.
The postgraduate training that is undertaken at the postgraduate levels leads to higher degree such as Masters of Science or Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D). This involves more intensive training and research in special problem areas.

One of the major reasons advanced in favour of off-the job training is based on the premise that trainees require a certain amount of vocational or technical knowledge before entering the organization or office being assigned specific tasks. The view here is that a sort of preliminary instruction is deemed necessary in order to prevent injury to the trainee, damage to equipment or waste of materials. It also prepares the worker for the additional training he may get on the job.

Furthermore, this form of training is more appropriate for imparting complex skills. It produces broadly-based training workers who can apply their skills in a variety of work settings. Equally important is the fact that the method is good for a large number of trainees and is offered at all times during the day or week and on part time and fulltime basis. All these advantages cannot be obtained from on-the job form of training.

Finally, it is a versatile worker who can perform many different tasks for the organization. It is also desirable to combine the two forms because the disadvantage of one can be compensated by the other.

The literature reviewed above indicates that the effect of training on job performance and the output of staffs as well as establishing if there is and difference between pre and post training job performance of staff is necessary. The hypothesis is that there is significant relationship between actual performance and the laid down standard as a result of training, there is significant relationship between the extent of workers training and the achievement of organizational goals and there is significant relationship between the worker’s knowledge, skill and attitude and job performance.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

In other to collect data for the purpose of analysis, the study population is made up of all staff (male and female) in International Institute (IITA) Ibadan- Oyo State between 2000-2006 who have benefited from the training process of the organization at one time or the other.

Purposive sampling technique was used for selecting the respondents who were made up of three (3) categories to make up for the total sample size of seventy respondents (General Staff 42 (60%), Senior staff 21 (30%) and Management staff 7 (10%).

A questionnaire divided into 3 parts with close and open ended questions was used and chi-square was used to test the significance of the relationship between relevant variables 0.05. Workers knowledge and skill were taken to be strong determinants of employee attitude to work in this study.

RESULTS

The Chi-square test was used to test the acceptability of the hypothesis. It measured the discrepancies existing between observed and expected frequency by the formula:

Where

χ2 = Test statistics
O = Observed frequency
E = Expected or theoretical frequency

To calculate, the χ2 is compared with the critical value. If the calculated value of χ2 exceeds the critical value, the hypothesis is regarded as invalid and therefore reject otherwise the hypothesis is upheld.

The degree of freedom is given by

df = (R-1) (C-1)

Where

R = No. of rows
C = No. of columns

df
= (R-1) (C-1)
= (3-1) (2-1)
= (2) (1) = 2 x 1 = 2

df = 2 at significant level of 0.05

Since the χ2 Calculated is greater than critical value, the hypothesis is rejected. That there is significant relationship between the actual performance and the laid down standard as a result of the training. It can also be deduced that the rate of training programme enjoyed by worker actually affected the performance and the standard put in place (Table 1).

Table 1: Performance and organization standard

df
  = (r – 1) (c - 1)
= (3 – 1) (2 –1)
= (2) (1) = 2 x 1= 2
df
  = 2 at significant level of 0.05

The χ2 calculated is greater than the critical value, we therefore reject. That is there is significant relationship between workers training and organizational achievement. It is clear from the analysis that workers training help the organisation in the attainment of its corporate goals (Table 2).

df
  = (r – 1) (c - 1)
= (3 – 1) (2 –1)
= (2) (1) = 2 x 1= 2
df
  = 2 at significant level of 0.05

χ2 calculated is less than critical value, we therefore accept the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between worker’s attitude and job performance (Table 3).

Table 2: Performance and achievement of organizational goals

Table 3: Performance and general attitude to work

CONCLUSIONS

This research has been able to identify the benefits of training to an organisation and the various techniques that can be used to achieve the maximum productivity. It is therefore necessary for the organisation to use qualified and well experienced trainer putting into consideration the preventing circumstance of the employee.

It was also discovered that failure to train employee leads to performance failure which invariably lead to the dent of the organizational reputation. Organisations should engage in identifying training needs as appropriate and also educate those trainers before conducting training Programmes.

It was also discovered that mentoring and coaching of employee as a training techniques helps to increase acquisition and retainment of skill by employee as compare to other methods.

From the data analyzed is clear that the training Programmes of the IITA is well structured and planned as it leads to acquisition of new skill, knowledge and ability required for the actual performance on the job. It was also discovered that all employee of the organisation usually undergo training as soon as they become a full employee of the organisation.

From the data analyzed, it was clear that growth and development of an organisation depends on the training that is giving to its employee likewise the reduction of the nature of hazards on the job.

It can therefore be said that for efficient performance of staff, different Nigerian organizations should embark on training programmes and intensify their effort in training their workers while in service. Increase in job performance will bring about increase in the rate of productivity, achievement of organizational goals and sound economy.

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Anthony, Y. and J. Kwanteng, 1995. Development of Training the Organisation and the Strategic Role of Training. Jossey Press, San Francisco.

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