Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Abstract
Fulltext PDF
References
Research Article
 
Aromatic Plant Species Mentioned in the Holy Qura’n and Ahadith and Their Ethnomedicinal Importance



Sarfaraz Khan Marwat, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Fazal- ur-Rehman and Inayat Ullah Bhatti
 
ABSTRACT
In view of the importance of this study comprehensive detailed data was collected from Holy Quran, Ahadith`s books and books written on the Islamic medicines. Present findings confined to 15 Aromatic plant species belonging to 14 genera of 10 families. The plant species are: Acorus calamus L., Artemisia maritima L., Boswellia carterii Birdw., Boswellia serrata Birdw., Cinnamomum camphora L., Citrus spp., Commiphora molmol Engl. ex Tschirch, Crocus sativus L., Cymbopogon schoenanthus Spreng., Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. F., Lawsonia inermis L., Majorana hortensis Moench. Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L. and Thymus serpyllum L. Results were systematically arranged by alphabetic order of botanical names followed by English name, Arabic name, family, parts used, medicinal uses and references cited from Holy Quran and Ahadith. The main aim of this study is to document the knowledge of ethno medicinal uses and create awareness about the Aromatic plant species mentioned in the Holy Quran and Ahadith for the welfare of human communities throughout the world.
Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Sarfaraz Khan Marwat, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Fazal- ur-Rehman and Inayat Ullah Bhatti, 2009. Aromatic Plant Species Mentioned in the Holy Qura’n and Ahadith and Their Ethnomedicinal Importance. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8: 1472-1479.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2009.1472.1479

URL: http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2009.1472.1479

INTRODUCTION

Aromatic plants possess odorous volatile substances, which occur as essential oil, green exudates, balsam and oleoresin in one or more parts, namely root, wood, stem, leaf, flower and fruit. The term essential oil is concomitant to fragrance or perfumes because these fragrances are oily in nature and they represent the essence and active constituents of plants (Skaria et al., 2007). An essential oil is the actual aroma which is extracted and it is this aroma which is used in aromatherapy to treat a number of ailments (Falsetto, 2008). The essential oils which impart the distinctive aromas are complex mixtures of organic constituents (Simon, 1990). There are about three hundred essential oils in general use today by professional practitioners, but the average household could fulfill all its likely needs with about ten (Belt, 2009a).

Plants are an essential component of the universe. Human beings have used plants as medicine from the very beginning of time (Marwat et al., 2009a). An estimated 50,000-70,000 plant species are used in traditional and modern medicine throughout the world. These species make an essential contribution to healthcare and along with species used more for their aromatic properties, in herbal products, pharmaceuticals and fragrances (Medicinal Plant Specialist Group, 2007).

In Islam diseases are cured in two ways, first the cure of soul through prayers and second the cure of ailments through medicines (Marwat et al., 2009b). The Holy Quran from the very start has a claim that it covers every aspect of life and is full of wisdom. It speaks “We have neglected nothing in the Book” (Khan et al., 1994). Our Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) used certain herbs and recommended various medicinal plants for cure of common diseases. His recommendations were noted by His Wives (Radiallaho Anhuma) and Companions (Radiallaho Anhum) and remain available to us today (Dar-ul-Iman healing, 2000).

Keeping in view the importance of diverse medicinal flora and rich medicinal culture of Islam, research work was conducted to investigate ethnomedicinal uses and create awareness about the Aromatic plant species mentioned in the Holy Quran and Ahadith for the welfare of human communities throughout the world.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The research work was conducted by reviewing the Holy Quran, Ahadith and Islamic books. Comprehensive and detailed information about 15 Aromatic plant species mentioned in the Holy Quran and Ahadith were collected from these sources. Plants species were arranged in systematic order of botanical names in alphabetic order followed by family, Quranic name, Arabic name, English name, habit and habitat, part used, medicinal uses and references cited from Holy Quran, Ahadith and Islamic books.

RESULTS

Present findings were confined to 15 Aromatic plant species belonging to 14 genera of 10 families enlisted in Holy Quran, Ahadith and Islamic literature. The plant species are: Acorus calamus L., Artemisia maritima L., Boswellia carterii Birdw., Boswellia serrata Birdw., Cinnamomum camphora L., Citrus spp., Commiphora molmol Engl. ex Tschirch, Crocus sativus L., Cymbopogon schoenanthus Spreng., Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. F., Lawsonia Inermis L., Majorana hortensis Moench., Ocimum basilicum L., Origanum vulgare L. and Thymus serpyllum L. which are used throughout the world in number of perfumery, flavouring and pharmaceutical compounds. Data inventory constitutes botanical name, family, English name, local names, Arabic name, parts used, medicinal uses and references cited from Holy Quran and books of Ahadith.

Botanical name : Acorus calamus L.
Family : Acoraceae
English name (s) : Calamus, Sweet flag
Local name : Zareera
Arabic name (s) : Zareera, Oudulwaj
Flowering period : May-July
Parts used : Leaves and rhizome.
Medicinal uses : Rhizome: Emetic, antispasmodic, carminative, analgesic, stomachache, insectifuge, nerve tonic. Given in dyspepsia, colic, remittent fever, epilepsy bronchial, granular tumours and snake-bite. Useful against moths and lice. Also employed for kidney and liver troubles, rheumatism and eczema.

References from Ahadith:

Hazrat Aisha (Radhi Allaho Anha) narrates that I myself applied the perfume of Grass Mytle (Zareera) to the Holy Prophet at the time of wearing and removal of Ihram (unstitched, preferably white, pieces of cloth) during the Farewell Hajj (Farooqi, 1998; Al Qadr, 2007).
One of the Holy Wives (Radhi Allaho Anha) of The Holy Prophet (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, “One day the Holy Prophet (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) came to me and there was pimple on my finger. He asked, have you grass mytle? I told, yes. He (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, apply it on the pimple (Farooqi, 1998).

Botanical name : Artemisia maritima L.
Family name : Compositae (Asteraceae)
English name (s) : Sage brush, Santonica, Worm seed, ajvain.
Local name (s) : Kirmala, Afsanteen
Arabic name : Afsanteen
Flowering period : August-September.
Parts used : Seeds, floral buds and leaves.
Medicinal uses : Artemisia (Karmala, Afsanteen) is used as antiperiodic, deobstruent, stomachache, tonic and anthelmintic. It is given internally in dyspepsia, jaundice, flatulence and worms. It is used externally as antiseptic.

References from Ahadith:

Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, “Fumigate Olibanum (lubban) and Sage brush (Karmala, Afsanteen) in your houses” (Farooqi, 1998).
Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhiallaho Anho) narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, “Fumigate Sage brush (Karmala, Afsanteen), Myrrh (murmuki) and Thyme (Sa’tar) in your houses” (Farooqi, 1998).

Botanical name : Boswellia carterii Birdw.
Family : Burseraceae
English name (s) : Olibanum, Indian Frankincense, Arabic Frankincense, Salai guggal
Arabic name : Labban
Local name : Lubban
Parts used : Dried resin, collected from stems and trunk.
Medicinal uses : Burseraceae plant family members (Boswellia carteri etc.) possess the medicinal property of being expectorant and therefore particularly helpful in treating bronchitis; they are also useful in healing wounds and ulcers and reducing scar tissue.

References from Ahadith:

Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, “Fumigate your houses with Olibanum (lubaan, labaan) and Thyme (Sa’tar)” (Farooqi, 1998 and Ghaznavi, 1991).
Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, “Fumigate your houses with Olibanum (lubban) and Sage brush (Karmala, Afsanteen)” (Farooqi, 1998 and Ghaznavi, 1991).

Botanical name : Boswellia serrata Birdw.
Family : Burseraceae
Engish name (s) : Indian Bedellium, frankicense
Loal name (s) : Gogle Guggal, Salai Guggal, Sallaki
Arabic name : Kundar
Parts used : The most important derivative of Boswellia serrata tree is the Boswellia Gum Resin.
Medicinal uses : Diaphoretic, diuretic, astringent, emmenagogue. Used in nervous diseases, rheumatism, skin eruption. Chiefly used in incense. Ingredient of ointments.

References from Ahadith:

Hazarat Abdullah bin Abbas (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrated that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) soaked Kundar at night. He mixed brown sugar in it and drank. He said, it is the best remedy for memory and urine problem (Farooqi, 1998).
Hazrat Anus bin Malik (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrated, ‘Some one complained to Prophet (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) against his memory. He (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, take kundar (Boswellia serrata) and soak it in water and drink that water early in the morning. It is a useful phytotherapy for memory (Farooqi, 1998).

Botanical name : Cinnamomum camphora L. *
Family : Lauraceae
English name (s) : Camphor Tree, camphor laurel, gum camphor
Local name : Kafoor
Arabic name : Kafoor
Part used : Leaves and branches
Medicinal uses : Sedative, anodyne, antiseptic, diaphoretic, anthelmentic, stimulant, carminative. Used as insecticide. Toxic causing headache, nausea, excitement, confusion and delirium.

References from Holy Qur’an
Surah 76. Al-Insan or Ad-Dahr, Verse #. 5:
Verily, the Abrar (the pious and righteous), Shall drink of a cup (of wine) mixed with (water from a spring in Paradise called) Kafur (Al-Hilali and Khan, 1996).

References from Ahadith:

Hazrat Umm-e-Attiah Ansariah (Radhi Allaho Anha) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) came to us, when His Daughter (Radhi Allaho Anha) died. He said, give Her a bath three or five times and it will be better to use cedar (beri) leaves and water for a bath and apply camphor after that (Farooqi, 1998).

Note: Two types of plants of different families have been a source of camphor from ancient time. One of these is a tree of Malaysia (Dryobalanops aromatica) of family Dipterocarpaceae and the other one is a tall tree of China and Japan (Cinnamomum camphora) of family Lauraceae. The camphor of Malaysia is obtained from the bark of Dryobalanops aromatica while that of Chinese camphor is obtained from the wood of Cinnamomum camphora (by freezing the essence of its wood). The substance camphor-Kafoor (said to be used in funeral rites) mentioned in the above and other Ahadith, is actually the name of Itar-e-Hinna (perfume of Lawsonia inermis) and correct pronunciation Kafoor is Qafoor (Farooqi, 1998).

Botanical name : Citrus spp.
Family : Rutaceae
English name (s) : Lemon, Citron
Local name (s) : Narangi, lemu, mita lemu etc.
Arabic name (s) : Utraj, Turanj
Flowering period : Spring season
Medicinal uses : Fruits-Nutritive, cardiotonic, refrigerant, carminative, stomachic, appetizer. Cures catarrh, urinary calculus. Leaves and peel are highly medicinal.

References from Ahadith:

Lemon has many benefits for you. It strengthens the heart and prevents heart failure (Farooqi, 1998).

Hazrat Abu Musa Ashari (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrated that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said: “The example of a mo’min (believer) who reads the Qur’an is like that of ‘Turanj’ which has a pleasant smell and a sweet taste” (Farooqi, 1998).

Botanical name : Commiphora molmol Engl. ex Tschirch
Family : Burseraceae
English name : Myrrh
Local name : Murmukey
Arabic name : Mur
Parts used : Gum of stem
Medicinal uses : Germicides, wound healer, old cough, oral fragrance, baldness, swelling of urinary bladder.

References from Ahadith:

Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, “Fumigate your houses with Sage brush (Karmala, Afsanteen), Myrrh (murmuki) and Thyme (Sa’tar)” (Farooqi, 1998).

Botanical name :

Crocus sativus L.

Family : Iridaceae
English name (s) : Saffron, Meadow crocus, Saffron crocus.
Local name : Zaffron
Arabic name : Zaffron
Parts used : Rhizome
Medicinal uses : As a medicinal plant, saffron has traditionally been considered an anodyne, aphrodisiac, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant and sedative. The plant has been used as a folk remedy against scarlet fever, smallpox, colds, insomnia, asthma, tumors and cancer. Given to promote eruptions in measles. In over doses, saffron is toxic.

References from Ahadith:

Hazrat Ibne Umar (Radhiallaho Anho) narrates that one person asked Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) what a muhrim should wear? He said (replied), “do not wear clothes (ihram) dyed with waras and saffron” (Farooqi, 1998).

Hazrat Anas bin Malik (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) forbade men to apply saffron (Farooqi, 1998).


Botanical name : Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng
Family : Poaceae
English name : Camel Grass
Local name : Izkhir
Arabic name : Izkhir
Parts used : Leaves, stems and rhizomes
Medicinal uses : Tonic, antispasmodic, febrifuge, intestinal disinfectant, antimalaria and against Guinea worm, antispasmodic, diuretic, to treat the cough of infants and children. Also used as astringent and febrifuge. Oil is used in rheumatism and neuralgia.

References from Ahadith:

Hazrat Abu Huraira (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said about Makkah, “Its thorn must not be plucked. Its trees might not be cut” Some one among the Quraish begged (wanted) permission of cutting Camel grass (izkhar) to use it in their homes and shrines. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) permitted, “yes, yes, except izkhar, except izkhar” (Farooqi, 1998).
Hazrat Khabab (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrates, When Hazrat Mus’ab bin ‘Umair (Radhi Allaho Anho) was killed in the battle of Uhud and we found such a sheet for a shroud (coffin) which was too short for his size. When it was drawn to cover the head, the feet would be exposed and when it was drawn to cover the feet, the head would become uncovered. The Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said: “Cover his head with the sheet and his feet with the ‘Izkhir’ leaves” (Farooqi, 1998).

Botanical name : Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertn. F.
Synonym : Dryobalanops camphora Colebr. Family:Dipterocarpaceae
English name : Borneo camphor, Malayan camphor, Sumatra camphor.
Local name : Kafoor
Arabic name : Kafoor
Medicinal uses : Sedative, anodyne, antiseptic, diaphoretic, anthelmentic, stimulant, carminative. Used as insecticide. Toxic causing headache, nausea, excitement, confusion and delirium.

References from Holy Qur’an:
Surah 76. Al-Insan or Ad-Dahr, Verse #. 5:
See under Cinnamomum camphora L.*

References from Ahadith:

Hazrat Umm-e-Attiah Ansariah (Radhi Allaho Anha) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) came to us, when His Daughter (Radhi Allaho Anha) died. He said, give Her a bath three or five times and it will be better to use cedar (beri) leaves and water for a bath and apply camphor after that (Farooqi, 1998).

Note: See Note under Cinnamomum camphora L.

Botanical name : Lawsonia inermis L.
Family : Lythraceae
English name : Egyptian Privet-Henna
Local name : Mehandi
Arabic name : Henna, Faghia (Kalli)
Parts used : Leaves
Medicinal uses : Henna has been used for astringent, antihemorrhagic, intestinal antineoplastic, cardio-inhibitory, hypotensive and sedative effects, amoebiasis, headache, jaundice and leprosy. Its extracts show antibacterial, antifungal and ultraviolet light screening activity, antifertility activity in animals and may induce menstruation.

References from Ahadith:

Whosoever complained of pain in legs, the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayi Wasallam) advised him to apply Henna (on the legs)." (Farooqi, 1998).

Umm Salamah (Radi Allaho Anha) as commenting; "The Prophet (Sallallaho Alayi Wasallam) never suffered from a wound or a thorn without putting Henna on it" (Mutmainaa, 2003).
Jahzma (Radi Allahu Anho), the wife of Bashir Bin Khasasia (Radi Allaho Anho) narrates, "I saw Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu Alayi Wasallam) coming out of the house. He was coming after taking bath; therefore, he was shaking his hairs. The colour of Henna was visible on his head." (Mutmainaa, 2003).
Abdullah bin Burayda (Radi Allahu Anho) narrates that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayi Wasallam) said, "the lord of sweet-smelling blossoms in this world and the next is Henna blossom" (Farooqi, 1998).
Hazrat Anas (Radi Allaho Anho) also relates that the Prophet (Sallallahu Alayi Wasallam) loved sweet-smelling blossoms, especially that of Henna (Mutmainaa, 2003).

Botanical name : Majorana hortensis Moench.
Family : Lamiaceae/Labiatae
English name : Marjoram
Local name (s) : Marva khusa, Marzanjosh
Arabic name (s) : Mardaqoush, Mardaqush, Marzanjush; Zatar, Satar (M. syriaca)
Parts used : Whole plant
Medicinal uses : Whole plant-stimulant, tonic, rubefacient. Given in colic, diarrhea, hysteria, rheumatism, toothache and earache. Useful in gynaecological disorders.

References from Ahadith:
Hazrat Anus bin Malik (Radi Allaho Anho) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, “there is Marzanjosh (Marjoram) for you. It is very effective medicine for cold” (Ghaznavi, 1991).

Botanical name : Ocimum basilicum L.
Family : Lamiaceae
English name : Sweet Basil
Local name : Rehan, Niazbo
Arabic name : Rehan
Parts used : Leaves and seeds
Medicinal uses : Fever, cough, common cold, eczema, baldness, vaginal swelling, pemples, arthritis, muscles pain, antidote, pain killer, tuber closes, asthma, piles, hepatitis, consception, malaria and heart diseases.

References from Holy Quran
Surah Ar- Rahman, Verse #. 12, 13:
Therein are fruits, date-palms producing sheathed fruit-stalks (enclosing dates). And also corn, with (its) leaves and stalk for fodder, and sweet-scented plants (Al-Hilali and Khan, 1996).

Surah Al-Waqi‘a, Verse #. 88, 89: Thus, then, if he be of those Nearest to Allah, (there is for him) rest and satisfaction and a Garden of Delight (Ali, 1989).

References from Ahadith:

Hazrat Abu Usman (Radi Allaho Anho) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, “Whom Ocimum is offered, might not refuse” (Farooqi, 1998).

Hazrat Abi Na’m (Radi Allaho Anho) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, “These (Hazrat Hassan and Hazrat Hussain Radi Allaho Anhomaa) are ocimum (fragrance or fragrant flowers) for me in the world” (Farooqi, 1998).

Note: Rehan (O. basilicum) is considered to be Tulsi (O. sanctum) by some people, but it is incorrect. Both are different species (Farooqi, 1998).

Botanical name : Origanum vulgare L.*
Family : Lamiaceae/Labiatae
English name : Marjoram
Local name : Jungli Marzanjosh
Arabic Name : Marzanjosh
Parts used : Leaves
Medicinal uses :

Essential oil from leaves and flowering tops used for toothache, sprains, stiff and paralysis. Seeds and leaves useful as remedy for colic.

References from Ahadith:

Hazrat Anus bin Malik (Radi Allaho Anho) narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, “there is Marzanjosh (Marjoram) for you. It is very effective medicine for cold” (Ghaznavi, 1991).

* Two types of Marzanjosh are found in Egypt and Arabia. One is known as Wild Marzanjosh (Origanum vulgare L.) and the other one as Halu Marzanjosh (Majorana hortensis Moench). Both are medicinal herbs containing pleasant aromatic oil like thyme (Ghaznavi, 1991).

Botanical name : Thymus serpyllum L.
Family : Labiatae (Lamiaceae)
English name (s) : Thyme, Wild thyme
Local name (s) : Sattar Ban-ajwain, Jangli Podina Arabic name (s):Sa’tar, Za’tar
Part used : Leaves
Medicinal uses : The whole plant is anthelmintic, antioxidant, strongly antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, deodorant, diaphoretic, disinfectant, expectorant, sedative and tonic. Internally, it is taken in the treatment of bronchitis, catarrh, laryngitis, flatulent indigestion, painful menstruation, colic and hangovers. Externally, it is applied to minor injuries, mastitis, mouth, throat and gum infections.

References from Ahadith:

Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, “Fumigate Sage brush (Karmala, Afsanteen), Myrrh (murmuki) and Thyme (Sa’tar) in your houses” (Farooqi, 1998).
Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, “Fumigate Olibanum (lubaan, labaan) and Thyme (Sa’tar) in your houses” (Farooqi, 1998 and Ghaznavi, 1991).

DISCUSSION

Aromatic plants (having an aroma; fragrant or sweet-smelling) synthesize and preserve a variety of biochemical products, many of which are extractable and useful as chemical feed stock or raw materials for various scientific investigations. Many secondary metabolites of plants are commercially important and find use in number of perfumery, flavouring and pharmaceutical compounds. Hence aromatic plants are generally referred to as ‘natural-biochemical-factories’ or ‘chemical goldmines’ (Skaria et al., 2007).

The essential oils which impart the distinctive aromas are complex mixtures of organic constituents (Simon, 1990). They are nearly all comprised of some combination of alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, esters, oxides, lactones, coumarins and furocoumarins. The result of this means that most essential oils are anti-inflammatory; anti-viral; anti-fungal; detoxifying; circulatory; anti-spasmodic; analgesic and decongestant (Falsetto, 2008).

As early as 4000 BC the great Sumerian civilization had discovered that most aromatic plants and shrubs have powerful antiseptic properties, making them natural healers for external wounds and skin infections and as infusions for internal ailments (Highet, 1999).

A close look at checklist of aromatic plant species tells us that these plants are not of Arabic origin but The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam), gave the references of such plants that are not only grown in Arab countries but exist through out the world. This shows that the Holy Prophet was light for the entire world. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) liked perfume (aroma) very much. The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, “From your world, women and Taib (perfume) were made beloved to me and the comfort of my eye is the prayer” (Al Qadr, 2007).

Narrated Hazrat 'Aisha (Radi Allaho Anha): I used to perfume Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) with the best scent available till I saw the shine of the scent on his head and shine beard. Narrated Hazrat 'Azra bin Thabit Al-Ansari (Radi Allaho Anho): When I went to Thumama bin 'Abdullah, he gave me some perfume and said that Anas (Radi Allaho Anho) would not reject the gifts of perfume. Anas (Radi Allaho Anho) said: The Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) used not to reject the gifts of perfume (Al Qadr, 2007). Our Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) used certain herbs and recommended various medicinal plants for cure of common diseases (Farooqi, 1998).

The Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) recommended Acorus calamus (zareera) for the treatment of pimple (Abscess). One of the Wives (Radi Allaho) of the Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) said, “Once the messenger of Allah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) came by when I had a pimple on my finger. He said: “Do you have a Tharirah (arum)’ I said, yes. He said, place it on the pimple. He then said, Say, O Allah who transforms the big to small and small to big, make what I am suffering small” (Farooqi, 1998; Al Qadr, 2007). In addition to its use as perfume the Zareera has numerous medicinal uses as well. It is useful in whooping cough and sciatica. In Arab Zareera was also used as fragrance at the time of Hazrat Musa Alayi Salam (Farooqi, 1998).

Artemisia maritima (Karmala, Afsanteen), Boswellia spp. (Olibanum, Frankincense-Luban), Commiphora molmol (Myrrh-murmuki) and Thymus serpyllum (Thyme-Sa’tar) are other aromatic and medicinal plants which have been recommended by the Holy Prophet (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) for fumigation in the houses.

Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhiallaho Anho) narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, “Fumigate Sage brush (Karmala, Afsanteen), Myrrh (murmuki) and Thyme (Sa’tar) in your houses” (Farooqi, 1998).

Hazrat Abdullah bin Jaffer (Radhi Allaho Anho) narrates that Rasulullah (Salallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, “Fumigate your houses with Olibanum (lubaan, labaan) and Thyme (Sa’tar)” (Farooqi, 1998; Ghaznavi, 1991). Artemisia maritima (Karmala, Afsanteen), leaves and flowers are antispasmodic, stimulant, cardiac, tonic and anthelmintics. Decoction or infusion of leaves is used in “ague” intermittent and remittent fever. Locally the fresh leaves are soaked in water kept over night and the water is taken as vermifuge (Amhrwo, 2001). The flowering tops are used in indigenous medicine as anthelmintic, deobstruent and stomachic. The drug santonin obtained from the flowering tops is specific for round worms. It is also used for removing thread worms from the small intestine (Zaman and Khan, 1970).

Boswellia carterii and B. serrata (Frankincense-luban) belong to family Burseraceae. Plants of this family possess the medicinal property of being expectorant and are, therefore, particularly helpful in treating bronchitis. They are also useful in healing wounds and ulcers and reducing scar tissue (Falsetto, 2009). Frankincense was used by doctors, dentists, chemists and beauticians since as early as 3000 BC and some of the biggest buyers of this highly prized resin were the embalmers (Highet, 1999).

Cinnamomum camphora L. has occasionally been used internally in the treatment of hysteria, but in modern day herbalism it is mainly used as the essential oil and internal use is not advised. The wood and leaves are analgesic, antispasmodic, odontalgic, rubefacient, stimulant. An infusion is used as an inhalant in the treatment of colds and diseases of the lungs. The plant is more commonly used in the form of the essential oil which can be obtained by distillation of the chipped branches, trunk and wood of the tree, or from the leaves and twigs. Wood 24-40 years old is normally used. The essential oil is anthelmintic, antirheumatic, antispasmodic, cardiotonic, carminative, diaphoretic, sedative and tonic. It is used externally in liniments for treating joint and muscle pains, balms for chilblains, chapped lips, cold sores, skin diseases etc and as an inhalant for bronchial congestion (Plants For a Future, 2008).

Citrus spp. Lemons are just one example of the simple bounties Allah has provided us with. In addition to their nutritional benefits, lemon (its oil) is used in aromatherapy, as a muscle relaxant and a skin and circulation stimulant. Rubbed on the face, lemons open up the pores releasing heat and refreshing the skin. Eaten during pregnancy, lemons help build the developing baby's bones. Lemons also aid in the digestion of heavy meals and in the assimilation of protein, calcium, zinc and vitamins. Lemons also have cholesterol-lowering properties, thus preventing hair loss and even causing hair regeneration. They counteract cases of anxiety and depression; stimulate the liver and the gall bladder, causing a release in congestion; stimulate the formation of valuable leukocytes in the fight against viral and infectious diseases and stimulate the lymphatic system in cases of cellulite and obesity (Al Qadr, 2007).

Henna (Lawsonia inermis) is another aromatic plant mentioned in Ahadith. Hazrat Muhammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) informed us of the beneficial elements contained in Henna over 1400 years ago. One tradition of the Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) cited in At-Tirmidhi, records Umm-e-Salamah (Radi Allahu Anho) as commenting; "The Prophet (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) never suffered from a wound or a thorn without putting Henna on it" Another tradition mentioned in As-Sahih Bukhari and Abu Dawud Sharif says, "Whenever somebody came to Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) with complaints of headache, he directed him to undergo cupping and whosoever complained of pain in legs, was advised to apply Henna." The Perfume made from henna flowers is very sweet and strong. In a well known hadith, cited in As-Suyuti's 'Tibb an-Nabi' it is recorded that Muhammad (Sallallaho Alaihe Wasallam) said, "the lord of sweet-smelling blossoms in this world and the next is Henna blossom" (Mutmainaa, 2003). The actual Henna plant is sometimes called the "Magic Plant" because it has great healing effects. It contains ingredients to be antibacterial, anti-fungal and anti-hemorrhagic. Henna is useful is healing athlete's foot, fungal skin infections, headaches, burning of the soles and palms and local inflammation. The leaves and seeds act as cooling agents for the head and body (Mutmainaa, 2003).

Izkhir (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) leaves, stems or the rhizomes are used in the therapeutic traditional ones, as well of internal use, like tonic, antispasmodic, febrifuge, intestinal disinfectant, as external, like disinfecting funerary, antimalaria and against Guinea worm. In Egyptian this plant has a good reputation to be an antispasmodic and a renal diuretic. It has been established by various authors that the active ingredient responsible for the antispasmodic activity is a sesquiterpenediol, the cryptomeridiol. A recent ethnobotanic study shows that this plant is used in traditional pharmacopoeia in Burkina Faso to treat the cough of infants and children (Yentema et al., 2007).

Myrrh (Commiphora molmol is thick, yellow, gummy resin extracted from a shrub. Essential oils like myrrh have considerable medicinal properties as ancient Egyptian physicians surmised. Myrrh was extensively used to embalm the dead (Highet, 1999). The herb is particularly beneficial for treating bronchitis, asthma, cold and catarrh or running nose. It acts against all viral and bacterial infections, all other diseases as well as invigorates the body’s immune (resistance) system. The herb’s action to augment digestion also helps in cleansing the digestive tract of all noxious substances as well as function as a remedy for common detoxification and anti-inflammation. This quality of myrrh is especially useful in treating arthritis, rheumatism as well as gout (GmbH, 2008).

Sweet marjoram (Majorana hortensis Moench.) is considered as highly medicinal like other members of the same family such as mint, basil etc. It is considered expectorant, carminative and tonic. It is reported to be useful in asthma, hysteria and paralysis. Its oil is used as an external application for sprains, bruises, stiff and paralytic limb and toothache. It is also used for hot fomentation in acute diarrhea. Leaves and seeds are reported to provide a ready remedy for colic (Indian food, 2009).

Ocimum basilicum (Sweet basil-Raihan) acts principally on the digestive and nervous systems, easing flatulence, stomach cramps, colic and indigestion. The leaves and flowering tops are antispasmodic, aromatic, carminative and digestive, galactogogue, stomachic and tonic. The mucilaginous seed is given in infusion in the treatment of gonorrhoea, dysentery and chronic diarrhoea. It is said to remove film and opacity from the eyes. Extracts from the plant are bactericidal (Plants For a Future, 2008).

Oregano (Origanum vulgare) has a beneficial effect upon the digestive and respiratory systems and is also used to promote menstruation. The leaves and flowering stems are antispasmodic, carminative, cholagogue, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, stimulant, stomachic and mildly tonic. The plant is taken internally in the treatment of colds, influenza, mild feverish illnesses, indigestion, stomach upsets and painful menstruation. This plant is one of the best natural antiseptics because of its high thymol content (Plants For a Future, 2008).

Thyme (Thymus serpyllum) has been used by mankind since pre-recorded times. Ancient Greeks derived its name from one of its many uses: "to fumigate." During the period of the Black Plague, doctors wore "nose gays" and masks that included thyme when visiting sick rooms and clinics. Thyme was used as incense in religious ceremonies and as a funeral herb. The dried flowers are also used to repel moths from clothing (Belt, 2009b). The antiseptic abilities found in the volatile phenolic compounds, thymol and carvacrol, in thyme make it ideal in combating bad breath, gum disease, gastric problems caused by viruses or bacteria, eczema, burns, ringworm, psoriasis, parasitic infections, sore throats and body odour. However, thyme should not be used by pregnant women or by children as it can act as a uterine stimulant and is toxic in high doses (Burns, 2000).

REFERENCES
AMHRWO, (Alpine Medicinal Herbs and Rural Welfar Organization), 2001. Artemisia maritime. http://www.sdpi.org/alpine%20medicianl%20herbs/5.htm.

Al-Hilali, M.T. and M.M. Khan, 1996. The Noble Quran: English Translation of the Meaning and Commentary. King Fahd Complex for the Printing of Holy Quran, Madinah, KSA., pp: 738.

Al-Qadr, 2007. Prophetic medicine. http://www.ummah.com/forum/archive/index.php.

Ali, A.Y., 1989. The Holy Quran English Translation of the Meaning and Commentary. King Fahd Complex for the Printing of Holy Quran, Madinah, KSA., pp: 1016.

Belt, M., 2009. Essential oils. http://www.naturedirect2u.com/Essential%20oils/essentialoils.htm.

Belt, M., 2009. Mother of thyme: Thymus serpyllum. http://www.naturedirect2u.com/Medicinal%20herbs/motherofthymeherb.htm.

Burns, K., 2000. Herbs in Hadith, part two of three: Kitchen herbs. http://www.islamonline.net/servlet/Satellite?c=Article_C&pagename=Zone-English-HealthScience/HSELayout&cid=1157365863368.

Dar-ul-Iman Healing, 2000. Food of the prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam). http://chishti.org/foods_of_the_prophet.htm.

Falsetto, S., 2008. The properties of essential oils: Physical and therapeutic properties common to all aromatherapy oils. http://aromatherapy.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_properties_of_essential_oils.

Falsetto, S., 2009. Medicinal properties of aromatic plant families. Therapeutic Properties in the Same Scented Plant Family. http://medicinal-plants.suite101.com/article.cfm/medicinal_properties_of_aromatic_plant_families.

Farooqi, I., 1998. Ahadith Mein Mazkoor Nabatat, Adwiya Aur Ghizain. Ilm-o-Irfan Pulishers, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, pp: 151-152.

Ghaznavi, K., 1991. Tibb-e-Nabvi and Modern Science. Al-Faisal Nasheeran Wa Tajeeran-e-Kutab, Urdu Bazar Lahore, Pakistan, pp: 50-334.

GmbH, C.E.R., 2008. Myrrh. http://www.herbs2000.com/herbs/herbs_myrrh.htm

Highet, J., 1999. The perfumes of Arabia. The Middle East. http://www.africasia.com/archive/me/99_01/mems0101.htm#top.

Indian Food, 2009. Marjoram. http://www.indianetzone.com/1/marjoram.htm.

Khan, A.S., M.A. Khan, H.A. Din, H.U. Khan and M. Tayyab, 1994. Some scientific facets of Quran and sunnah (of the Prophet Muhammad, Peace Be Upon Him) in the field of medicine. Pak. J. Health, 31: 7-10.

Marwat, S.K., M.A. Khan, A. Khan, M. Ahmad, M. Zafar, F.U. Rehman and S. Sultana, 2009. Vegetables mentioned in the Holy Quran and Ahadith and their ethnomedicinal studies in Dera Ismail Khan, N.W.F.P., Pakistan. Pak. J. Nutr., 8: 530-538.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Marwat, S.K., M.A. Khan, M.A. Khan, M. Ahmad, M. Zafar, F.U. Rehman and S. Sultana, 2009. Salvadora Persica, Tamarix aphylla and Zizyphus mauritiana-three woody plant species mentioned in Holy Quran and Hadith and their ethnobotanical uses in North Western part (D.I. Khan) of Pakistan. Pak. J. Nutr., 8: 542-547.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Medicinal Plant Specialist Group, 2007. International standard for sustainable wild collection of medicinal and aromatic plants (ISSC-MAP). Version 1.0. Bundesamt fur Natur-Schutz (BfN), MPSG/SSC/IUCN, WWF Germany and TRAFFIC, Bonn, Gland, Frankfurt and Cambridge (BfN-Skripten 195), pp: 5. http://www.floraweb.de/map-pro/.

Mutmainaa, 2003. The prince of dyes-henna. http://www.geocities.com/mutmainaa/food/henna.html.

Plants For a Future, 2008. Edible medicinal and useful plants for healthier world. http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php.

Simon, J.E., 1990. Essential Oils and Culinary Herbs. In: Advances in New Crops, Janick, J. and J.E. Simon (Eds.). Timber Press, Portland OR., pp: 472-483.

Skaria, B.P., P.P. Joy, S. Mathew, G. Mathew, A. Joseph and R. Joseph, 2007. Aromatic Plants. In: Hurticulture Science Series 1, Peter, K.V. and M.S. Swaminathan (Eds.). Kerala Agricultural University Aromatic and Medicinal Resaerch Station, Kerala, India, pp: 1.

Yentema, O., O. Alioune and S.A. Dorosso, 2007. Chemical composition and physical characteristics of the essential oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) spreng of burkina faso. J. Applied Sci., 7: 503-506.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Zaman, M.Z. and M.S. Khan, 1970. Hundred Drug Plants of West Pakistan. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar, pp: 15.

©  2017 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved
Fulltext PDF References Abstract