Iron deficiency is an important worldwide disorder. Fifteen percent
of world populations are suffering from Iron deficiency (Rahimzade et
al., 1992). Anemia, Iron deficiency, is common among the children
of developmental countries and often its prevalence is 50% or more (Zimmermann
et al., 2005; WHO/UNICEF/UNU, 2001). The Iron balance in children
and teenagers is kept (protected) by arrangement of Iron attracting in
order to secure the growth and also to increase the amount of red blood
cells and the replacement of lost Iron amount by skin and genital, urination
system and digestion (Beutler, 1957; Beutler and Blaisedell, 1995).
Iron is one of the heavy metals with very important biological value
which is not only a part of hemoglobin, but also a part of some enzymes
of electron transmitter systems at Mitochondrion (Beutler, 1959). It is
recognized that Iron deficiency causes different systematic diseases accompanied
with decreasing of cytochrome in mitochondria. Lately it is reported that
the bridle of cytochrome oxidase follows in learning deficiency and straightness
of Hippo comp (Ogasahara et al., 1986).
Iron deficiency is the most common anemia in the world and the most important
reason for that is detective obtaining of Iron which follows dangerous
results such as the death of mothers and Fetus, the decrease of children`s
growth, disorder growth and abnormality of development in children (Zimmermann
et al., 2005). The most important reason for Anemia and Iron deficiency
are: decrease in physical and mental activities in all ages, decrease
in intelligence quotient decrease in effectiveness, change of behavior,
impatience, decrease in physical resistance against the sickness early
tiredness and bodily weakness (Rahimzade et al., 1992). In the
young people, the danger of iron deficiency is more than others, because
they need more nutritive materials growth and mutation.
Regarding to the important role of iron as one of the psychological factor
in intelligence quotient of people and since the danger of this illness
is high in developmental countries; this study was done on students 11-17
years old in order to evaluate the effect of Iron deficiency on the intelligence.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study is Descriptive-Cross sectional and 540 were taken on
the students between 11 to 17 who were studding at junior school and senior
schools of Borujerd. In this study the sampling was done in cluster form
Junior school and senior schools of Borujerd. For all of these children,
in order to consider them. In view of serum Iron SI, total Binding capacity.
TIBC and Ferritin Raven test was used in order to this test was made by
PenRose and Raven in 1983 and has 60 picture questions. It is consisted
of 5 dozen (A-E). Although the developing matorists are made for ages
between 5 to 65, but the best application of them is between 10.18.
It is appropriate for measuring the rate of mental growth in children
in both junior and senior school. In order to dispose of the test, a first
for decreasing anxiety and stress, preparing the students and approximate
familiarity with probable abilities of the students who have participated
in the test, an interview in the form of advising the student is done
and required information is registered then the test in particular processes
is taken and at the end the answer papers are gathered and evaluated by
the answer key. Eventuality the student`s grade and the time of answering
the questions were recorded and their rank in the percent form and the
level in which the students taking exam is calculated according to charts
and are written in answer papers. People in this research were divided
in seven categories: superior, genius, intelligent, more intelligent,
average, average weak, stupid, weak stupid and handicapped. Obtained information
was analyzed statistically by SPSS and also by χ2 and
Five hundred and forty students including 264 boys (48.9%) and 276 girls
(51.1%) were studied in this research. The average age of the subjected
persons was 14.9±1.2 and the range of their ages was 12 to 17.
Their average IQ was 113. 9±13.7. Among the studied students 35.2%
were at the third level, that is to say, they were very intelligent. Seventy
eight students (14.4%) suffered from iron deficiency and 140 students
(25.9%) suffered from iron deficiency anemia.
Among the 264 boy students in present research, 42 students (15.9%) suffer
from iron deficiency and 56 students (21.2%) suffer from anemia iron deficiency;
among the 276 girl students, 36 students (13%) suffer from iron deficiency
and 84 students (30.4%) suffer from anemia iron deficiency; the case for
both sexes were not significant (5%<p), although iron deficiency in
girls was far more than the boys. Differentiation was significant (5%≤p)
The average intelligent quociency of the students who were suffering
from iron deficiency was 115±12.1 and the one of those who were
not suffering from it was 113.7±13.9. This difference was not so
important to be considered by statistics. Also according to the result
of the this research, the average intelligent quociency of the students
who were suffering from iron deficiency differs from the ones of other
students (Table 2).
The result showed that the classification of the students who were in
research based on the marks of their IQ didn`t differ from the ones who
weren`t suffering from iron deficiency anemia (Table 3).
||Comparison of multiple distribution of Iron deficiency
and i.d. anemia among the students between 11 to 17 age in Borujerd
||Comparison between the average IQ of students suffering
from iron deficiency and anemia and other students
||Comparison between the marks of IQ of the students of
both groups who are suffering from iron deficiency anemia and those
who are not
Present results showed that 25.9 of under survey students in this
essay were suffering from Iron deficiency and anemia. Unfortunately, it
is estimated that there is a great difference in the amount of frequency
of anemia and Iron deficiency between developed and developmental countries.
The amount of spreading of anemia and Iron deficiency in developing countries
is about 25-35% and in the developed countries is about 5-8%. The result
of the present study also were showed the high frequency of anemia and
Iron deficiency in the students of Broujerd city.
In the present study, the relationship between the IQ of 11-17 years
old students with Iron deficiency and anemia is was investigated. The
result of this research didn`t show a significant difference between the
average of IQ and also between the classification of scores of IQ of students
who are suffering from Iron deficiency and anemia with the students who
didn`t have these problems.
There are various factors impressing the amount of IQ of the people where
seems that heredity has the most important role in this case. Other factors
such as nutrition conditions, environment conditions, the cares of mother
in pregnancy period, suitable nutrition of pregnant mother, etc, also
has an important role on IQ. The result of the this study shows that although
Iron deficiency has a important role in the quality of IQ as an physiological
factor, the IQ is not depended on just one factor and is under the influence
of various factors and it is multi-factorial.
However, Iron has an important role in anemia etiology of Iron deficiency
in developing countries; a few researches have approved this fact (Mashako
et al., 1991; Rahimzade et al., 1992). The anemia and Iron
deficiency is the most spreading kind of deficiency in the world and its
most important reason is the impartial receiving of Iron which can have
increasing danger of death of mothers andumberio, stopping or decreasing
children growth, growth abnormality and children physical impartial growth,
decreasing physical activities, mental concentration and productivity
in all ages.
Therefore, it seems to provide necessary iron from different ways, like
to use different kinds of iron complements, is helpful; for example, to
use iron drop for 6 months 2 year old children, to use/eat suitable diet/food
with high iron, take iron pill for pregnant women and young females and
enrich usual food.
According to their growth and high need of necessary food in maturity
period, kids and teens are exposed to iron deficiency; therefore, to use/eat
iron food like meat, liver, grains and fresh vegetables everyday is effective
to be away from iron deficiency.
Also to use eat good full of vitamin C with main meal increases the absorption
of iron. Not to drink tea and coffee from 1 h before and 2 h after meal,
to be familiar with symptoms of iron deficiency can help not to suffer
from the illness.
This research declares that average quotient of teens (11-17) and
iron deficiency are irrelevant and the Fact matter shows several elements
affect on/influence person`s quotient.