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Research Article
Efficacy of Aniseed Extract as Immune Stimulant and Growth Promoter in Broiler Chicks

F.R. Durrani , A. Sultan , Sajjad Ahmed , N. Chand , F.M. Khattak and Z. Durrani
 
ABSTRACT
Present research was undertaken to investigate the effect of different level of 6% concentrated (w/v) aniseed extract in broiler chicks at NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar Pakistan. One hundred and sixty, day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments, as A, B, C, receiving 20, 30 and 40 mL of 6% (w/v) concentrated aniseed infusion and D was kept as control group. Each treatment was replicated four times with ten chicks per replicate. Chicks were reared in cages in an open sided house. Vaccination was done against ND and IBD. Data were recorded for growth performance, immunity and economics. The data were subjected to statistical analysis, using Completely Randomized Design and MSTATC programme. Mean feed and water intake was nonsignificant (p>0.05). Mean weight gain, FCR and dressing percentage was found better (p<0.05) in group C. Mean weight of giblet, intestine, breast, fat and thigh was not altered (p>0.05) in all groups. Mean antibody titer against IBD was higher (p<0.05) in group C and antibody titer against ND and IB was not altered. Mean percent mortality was found higher (p<0.05) in group D. Mean feed cost including the cost of aniseed infusion was not influenced (p>0.05), while the gross return was found better (p<0.05) in group B and C than other groups. Findings of the research study indicated that group C, receiving aniseed infusion at the rate of 40 ml L-1 of water shown better growth performance, immunity and gross return. Detail research work is needed to examine the effect of aniseed in ration and its different form of extracts on poultry production under different environmental conditions.
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F.R. Durrani , A. Sultan , Sajjad Ahmed , N. Chand , F.M. Khattak and Z. Durrani , 2007. Efficacy of Aniseed Extract as Immune Stimulant and Growth Promoter in Broiler Chicks. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 10: 3718-3721.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2007.3718.3721

URL: http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2007.3718.3721

INTRODUCTION

Synthetic non nutritive feed additives are extensively used in poultry ration as growth promoter and as prophylactic measures to overcome various diseases and stresses. The use of antibiotics develops resistance in the pathogenic microorganisms that is serious threat to human health. To avoid the residual effects of antibiotics and other synthetic feed additives in meat and eggs, research is needed to explore new alternatives to overcome these problems.

Medicinal plants and herbs contain a wide variety of active phytochemicals, including the flavonoids, terpenoids, lignans, sulfides, polyphenolics, carotenoids, coumarins, saponins, plant sterols, coumarins and phthalides (Zlatanov, 1994) These plants possess biological activities such as that of antioxidants (Farag and El-Khawas, 1998) and stimulate the function of animal digestive systems to increase production of digestive enzymes through enhance liver functions (Hernandez, 2004) and therefore could be effectively utilized in poultry ration as feed additives.

Aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.) is an annual herb, indigenous to Iran, India, Turkey and Pakistan. Aniseed contains eugenol, methylchavicol, anisaldehyde and estragole (Kubo, 1992). Aniseed has been used as an anthelmintic (Bhatti et al., 1996), antifungal (Gangrade, 1990), antipyretic and anelgesic (Afifi et al., 1994). Moreover, the plant and especially its fruit oil, has been used for treatment of some of the diseases like rhinitis, cough and other symptoms of the common cold (Schilcher et al., 2000). Based on these ideas a study was planned to elucidate the potential of aniseed as growth promoter and immune stimulator in broiler chicks.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This study was planned at NWFP Agricultural University Peshawar during in the months of March and April.

Experimental design: One hundred and sixty day old broiler chicks of nearly same body weight and without any sexing were purchased from a local dealer of chicks (DIAMOND Chicks) of Hubbard strain and were assigned randomly to four different groups each with four replicates having 10 chicks per replicate. These groups were designated as A, B, C and D that received 6% (w/v) concentrated aniseed infusion at the rate of 20, 30, 40 ml L-1 of fresh drinking water and control group, respectively. The birds were reared in pens of the same size, provided with feeders, drinkers, lights and bedding material for maintaining the optimum environmental conditions. Strict biosecurity measures were adopted during the entire of research study. Vaccination was done against ND, IBD and IB according to the schedule and manufacturer directions.

Preparation of 6% (w/v) aniseed extract: Fresh aniseed was purchased from the local market of district Peshawar. Sixty grams of fresh aniseed were ground in small grinder and were taken into a glass bottle. One liter of hot boiling water was then poured on it and was kept for 7-8 h at room temperature to prepare an infusion according to the method as described by Leila et al. (1977). Infusion was used on freshly basis for a maximum of three days.

Antibody titer determination: At the end of experiment, blood samples were collected for each replicate in test tubes. Test tubes were kept in slanting position to separate serum. Serums were taken in small sized plastic and were labeled for identity. The bottles were stored in iceboxes. Serum samples were sent to the Grand parent Laboratories Lahore for IBD, ND and IB antibody titer determination, using ELISA and HI test as described by Synder et al. (1984) and Alexander and Chettle (1977), respectively.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Water intake: Mean water intake per chick for the four experimental groups A, B, C and D is given in Table 1. No difference (p>0.05) in the mean water intake was observed in any of the treated and control group. However, group C, receiving extract 40 ml L-1 of water had numerically higher water intake comparatively. These results could be correlated with Durrani et al. (2007) who reported that medicinal herb extract, given in drinking water had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the water intake of broiler chicks.

Feed intake: Mean feed intake per chick of treated and control group is given in Table 1. No difference (p>0.05) in the mean feed intake was recorded. Aniseed possesses strong antimicrobial and antibiotic like properties (Kubo et al., 1992) and therefore could be effectively utilized as potential alternative growth promoter. Findings of present research study could be coincided with the findings of Proudfoot et al. (1990) who conducted experiments on feeding antibiotics to broiler chicks and noticed that antibiotics resulted in insignificant difference among treated and control groups. Results of the present study are in contrast with the findings of Guo et al. (2004) who reported better feed intake in broiler chicks fed with antibiotics.

Findings of the research study are also in agreement to Mehmet et al. (2005), who reported no difference in the mean feed intake of treated and control groups, given different levels of aniseed and antibiotics.

Body weight gain: Mean body weight gain per chick for different treated and control groups A, B, C and D are given in Table 1. Mean body weight gain was higher (p>0.05) in group C, receiving aniseed infusion at the rate of 40 ml L-1 of fresh drinking water than the rest of the three groups. Findings of the present research study might be due to its strong antimicrobial properties (Gangrade, 1990) that helps to keep the environment of intestinal tract balance and result is better utilization of feed and weight gain. Findings of this research study are in agreement to the findings of Mehmet et al. (2005) who reported better weight gain in broiler chicks, fed aniseed. Present observation could also be supported with the findings of El-Deek et al. (2001), who noticed that aniseed, fed to broiler chicks, resulted in higher body weight gain than control groups.

Feed conversion ratio: Mean FCR value per chick of different groups is given in Table 1. Mean FCR value was found better (p<0.05) in group C and B, receiving extract at the rate of 40 and 30 ml L-1 of drinking water, respectively.

Better FCR in group B and C is due the effect of aniseed extract that has been reported to increase production of digestive enzymes and improved utilization of digestive products through enhanced liver function (Hernandez et al., 2004). Findings of present study are in agreement to the findings of Mehmet (2005) and El-Deek et al. (2001), who investigated the effect of aniseed in broiler chicks and reported that aniseed improved the FCR by 10.9 and 12%, respectively.

Dressing percentage: Mean dressing percentage per chick for four groups is given in Table 2. Group C receiving extract at the rate of 40 ml L-1 water was found to have higher (p>0.05) dressing percentage than other groups. Higher dressing percentage is due to the effect of higher body weight gain and better FCR of group C.

Table 1: Mean body weight gain, feed intake, water intake and FCR per chick of different treatments
Means in column with different superscripts were significantly different at α = 0.05

These findings are in contrast to the findings of El-Deek et al. (2001), who stated that aniseed, fed to broiler chicks had no significant effect on dressing percentage.

Mortality: Mean percent mortality of group A, B, C and D is given Table 2. No mortality was observed in treated groups and was higher (p<0.05) in control group D. However findings of the present research study are in contrast with the findings of Proudfoot et al. (1990) who observed that broiler chicks fed with antibiotics have no significant effect on mortality.

Abdominal fat: Mean abdominal fat weight for the four experimental groups is given in Table 3. No difference (p>0.05) was found among the groups. These findings are in contrast to the findings of El-Deek et al. (2001), who reported a significant decrease in fat weight of broiler meat when fed aniseed.

Mean weight of different body organs: Mean weight of different body organs (breast and thigh) is presented in Table 3. It was observed that aniseed extract had no influence (p>0.05) on the mean weight of different body organs. However findings of the present research study are in contrast with findings of Izat et al. (1989), who noticed that antibiotics fed to broiler chicks, had significant effect upon breast weight.

Mean giblet weight: Mean weight of giblet is given in Table 4. No difference (p>0.05) was observed in the mean weight of giblet. It was observed that aniseed extract possessing antimicrobial like properties had no influence on the increase or decrease of the relative weights of giblet. These findings are in contrast to the results of the Fairly et al. (1985) who reported that antimicrobial agents resulted in an increase in the relative weights of giblet in broiler chicks.

Intestinal tract weight: Mean intestine weight per chick is given in Table 4. Aniseed extract had no effect (p>0.05) to alter the mean intestinal tract weight at any of the level, used in broiler chicks and results are therefore in agreement with the findings of Guo et al. (2004).

Mean antibody titer against nd, ib and ibd: Mean antibody titers against ND and IB were not affected (p>0.05) in any group, however, numerically higher antibody titer against ND and IB was observed in group C.

Table 2: Mean percent dressing per chick of different treatments and mortality
Means in column with different superscripts were significantly different at α = 0.05

Table 3: Mean weight of different body organs and abdominal fat per chick of different treatments

Table 4: Mean weight of giblet and intestine per chick of different treatments

Table 5: Mean Antibody Titer per chick of different treatments
Means in column with different superscripts were significantly different at α = 0.05

Table 6: Mean feed cost and gross return per chick of different treatments
Means in column with different superscripts were significantly different at α = 0.05

Antibody titer against IBD was highly influenced and was found higher (p<0.05) in group C than other groups (Table 5).

Mean feed cost and gross return: Mean feed cost and gross return per chick is given in Table 6. No difference (p>0.05) was found in the mean feed cost of all groups. Feed cost included the cost of aniseed extract for the treated groups A, B and C. Mean gross return was calculated on the basis of market rate of live bird on per kg basis. Mean gross return was higher (p<0.05) in group B and C than the other groups.

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