Diversity, Pathogenicity and Toxicology of A. niger: An Important Spoilage Fungi
Ajay K. Gautam,
Aspergillus niger, a worldwide distributed member of ascomycotina, has been isolated from numerous habitats. A. niger is one of the fungi that has been labelled with the GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status from the US Food and Drug Administration. This dull or dark black looking fungus has several important products in fermentation industry. But due to cosmopolitan nature, human beings gets frequently exposed to spores and vegetative forms of A. niger present in air, on foodstuffs and others stored consumables products and suffers with allergic problems. A. niger may also produce certain mycotoxins which are heptocarcinogenic, nephrogenic immunological in nature. In addition, this fungus is also causative agent for many rot diseases in plants. So, the present review article is an important step to understand the diversity, pathogenicity and toxicology of this important spoilage A. niger.
July 02, 2010; Accepted: August 07, 2010;
Published: November 04, 2010
Aspergillus niger (black mold), a filamentous ascomycete having ability
of fast growth and pH tolerance is most important cosmopolitan fungi associated
with postharvest decay of different substrates (Pitt and Hocking,
1997; Perfect et al., 2009; Perrone
et al., 2007). This organism is a soil saprobe with a wide array
of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in the breakdown of plant lignocelluloses.
Because of their ability to produce extracellular organic acids some of them
are commonly used in food industry. These features of A. niger enable
them to cause decay of various organic substances including fruits, vegetables,
nuts, beans, cereals, herbs, wood and herbal drugs. A. niger also plays
a significant role in the global carbon cycle (Baker, 2006).
Moreover, A. niger is one of the fungi that has been labelled with the
GRAS (generally recognized as safe) status from the US Food and Drug Administration
(Powell et al., 1994). But instead of the safe
categorization, A. niger has been found to be a opportunistic reason
for infections of humans. If inhaled, in sufficient quantity it can cause severe
lung problems i.e., aspergillosis in humans. It is also associated with various
plant diseases resulting in huge economic loss. Beside animal and plant pathogen,
A. niger is also reported to produce ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 and
aflatoxins (Abraca et al., 1994; Schuster
et al., 2002; Noonimabc et al., 2009;
Al-Abdalall, 2009) in stored commodities, which seems
to be very inevitable. Mycotoxins produced by A. niger are not only linked
to discoloration, quality deterioration, reduction in commercial values but
can also cause several ailments of liver, kidney, nervous system, muscles, skin,
respiratory organs, digestive tract, genital organs, etc. (Muntanola,
1987; Purchase, 1974; Durakovic
et al., 1989; Rai and Mehrotra, 2005; Truckesses
and Scott, 2008). Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize
the current knowledge like diversity, pathogenicity and toxicology about this
important spoilage fungus.
General characteristics: Aspergillus niger is a versatile filamentous
fungus found in soil, water, air, decaying plant material and large number of
food and feeds all over the world (Pitt and Hocking, 1997).
Raper and Fennell (1965) designated 15 species as comprising
the Aspergillus niger group, which includes all of the aspergilli with
black conidia, but now the concept of retention of the A. niger group
based on black conidia seems dominant (Someren et al.,
Aspergillus niger is both a species and a group within the genus Aspegillus. The taxonomic description is as follows:
A. niger (Tiegh.) Speg.:
The major difference between A. niger and other species of Aspergillus
is the production of carbon black or very dark brown spores from biseriate phialides
(Raper and Fennell, 1965). Vegetative growth is very rapid
on culture media with submerged mycelium. The hyphae are septate and hyaline
more or less yellow in color. The colonies are black coloured and reverse usually
colourless (Fig. 2a, b). Conidiophores mostly
arise directly from substratum and are smooth, septate or nonseptate, varying
greatly in length and diameter, i.e., 200-400x7-10 and 20 μ, respectively.
Conidial heads are fuscous, blackish-brown to purple-brown or in every shade
to carbonous black, varying from small, almost columnar masses of a few conidial
chains to the common globes or radiate heads, up to 300, 500 μ, or 1000
μ long. Vesicle globose, commonly 20-50 μ up to 100 μ in diameter.
Phialides typically in two series, (biseriate), thickly covering the vesicle,
primary greatly varies in length, secondary 6-10x2-3 μ (Fig.
1). Conidia are globose, at first smooth, but later spinose with coloring
substance, mostly 2.5-4 μ (Gilman, 2001).
The genome size of A. niger is about 35.5 to 38.5 Mb composed of about
13,000 genes. Of these genes, about 8000 to 8500 genes have functional assignments.
In addition, about 14,000 Open Reading Frames (ORF) were identified in the genome
which could potentially encode a protein. The DNA sequence of A. niger
consists of approximately 33.9 million base pairs. The possible function of
6500 genes could be established which is only about 45% of its total gene count.
Electrophoretic karyotyping of A. niger allows the visualization of chromosomes
separated into four separate bands. The chromosomal bands range from 3.5 to
6.6 Mb. The karyotype sequence that was obtained could be arranged into 19 separate
supercontigs that correspond to eight linear chromosomes (Debets
et al., 1990).
|| Characteristics of Aspergillus niger: (a) Morphological
and (b) Reverse side of colony
Diversity and geographical distribution: Aspergillus niger have
the ability to grow in wide temperature (6-47°C) and pH range (1.4-9.8).
The water activity limit for growth is 0.88, which is relatively high compared
with other Aspergillus species. These abilities make ubiquitous occurrence
of the species, with a higher frequency in warm and humid places (Palacios-Cabrera
et al., 2005). It can be found anywhere in and around of us (Kozakiewicz,
1989; Abarca et al., 2004; Samson
et al., 2004). Although the main source of black aspergilli is soil
(Khan et al., 2007), it has also been isolated
from various other sources like, air (Versar, 1991), food
and food products (Agrawal et al., 1980; Bennett
and Klich, 1992; Mandeel, 2005; Essono
et al., 2007; Perrone et al., 2007;
Reddy et al., 2009), herbs and herbal products
(Gautam and Bhadauria, 2008; Gautam
et al., 2009; Sareen et al., 2010;
Gautam et al., 2010, Avasthi
et al., 2010), fruits and fruits products (Magnoli
et al., 2003), etc. Not even as saprophytic fungi, A. niger
is also isolated as parasitic/pathogenic fungi from onion (Narayana
et al., 2007), Catharantus rosea as endophytic fungi (Kharwar
et al., 2008) and from various other medicinally/commercially important
plants (Table 1).
Ecology: A. niger is commonly isolated from soil, plant debris,
air and indoor environments. In addition to producing extracellular enzymes
and citric acid, A. niger is used for organic waste management and biotransformation.
The fungi is most commonly found in mesophilic environments such as decaying
vegetation or soil and plants (Schuster et al., 2002).
A. niger is one of the fungi that have been labeled with the GRAS (generally
recognized as safe) status according to the US Food and Drug Administration
(Schuster et al., 2002). The safe use of A.
niger comes into existence from its use in the food industry for the production
of many enzymes and acid proteases (Bennett, 1985; Ward,
1989). The annual production of citric acid by fermentation is now approximately
350,000 tons, using either A. niger or Candida yeast as the producing
organisms. Citric acid fermentation using A. niger is carried out commercially
in both surface culture and in submerged processes (Berry
et al., 1977; Ward, 1989).
By making use of industrial fermentation, A. niger produces many useful
enzymes like amylase, amyloglucosidase, cellulases, glucoamylase, lactase, invertase,
pectinases, etc. Glucoamylase is a useful enzyme used in the production of high
fructose corn syrup and pectinases are used in cider and wine clarification.
α-galactosidase, an enzyme that breaks down certain complex sugars, is
a component of Beano and other medications which the manufacturers claim can
decrease flatulence. Another use for A. niger within the biotechnology
industry is in the production of magnetic isotope-containing variants of biological
macromolecules for NMR analysis (Staiano et al.,
Besides the production of useful enzymes, various strains of A. niger used
in the industrial preparation of citric acid and gluconic acid, which have been
assessed as acceptable for daily intake by the World Health Organisation (WHO)
and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Schuster et al.,
2002). It is primarily used for the production of many enzymes such as aamylase,
amyloglucosidase, cellulases, lactase, invertase, pectinases and acid proteases
(Bennett, 1985; Ward, 1989). In
addition to production of enzymes and acids through fermentation, A. niger
has some uses as the organism itself. Due to its ease of visualization and
resistance to several antifungal agents, is used to test the efficacy of preservative
treatments (Jong and Gantt, 1987). Due to exquisitely
sensitiveness to micronutrient deficiencies, A. niger can be utilized
for soil testing (Raper and Fennell, 1965). Besides, RNAse
produced by A. niger called actibind has antiangiogenic and anticarcinogenic
characteristics (Schwartz et al., 2007).
Other properties of this species include spoilage and production of secondary
metabolites, such as aflatoxins, fuminisins and ochratoxins (Abraca
et al., 1994; Noonimabc et al., 2009;
Edwin et al., 2010) that are toxic. The mycotoxin
fumonisin B2 was recently found to be produced by A. niger (Noonimabc
et al., 2009). Metabolite production, involvement in spoilage of
food and other commodities, simply being a pathogen makes the genome sequencing
of this important fungus essential to biological applications (Takahashi
et al., 1991; May and Adams, 1997).
Pathogenicity and toxicology: A. niger is relatively harmless
as compared to other filamentous fungi. Despite this fact, there have been some
medical cases that have been accounted for, such as lung infections or ear infections
in patients that have weakened immune system or an immune system that has been
impaired by a disease or medical treatment (Schuster et
al., 2002; May and Adams, 1997). Besides human
pathogenicity, A. niger can cause various plant diseases also.
Aspergillus niger as plant pathogenic fungi: A. niger has
been isolated from a variety of substrates but, these reports involve co-isolation
with other perhaps more destructive microorganism or isolation from a stored
product. The organism is considered as a strict saprophyte (Farr
et al., 1989). There are reports of A. niger being as plant
pathogen (Fig. 3a, b, Table
2). This fungus can cause rotting of numerous fruits, vegetables and other
food products, thus causing substantial economic loss. There are many examples
of plant diseases caused by A. niger. Black rot of onions associated
with A. niger is responsible for serious losses of onion bulbs in the
field and storage (Narayana et al., 2007). Other
plant pathogenic reports of A. niger are, spoilage of mangos (Prakash
and Raoof, 1989), grapes (Sharma and Vir, 1986),
Tomatos (Sinha and Saxena, 1987), Shallot; stem rot
of Dracaena (Abbasi and Aliabadi, 2008); root stalk
rot of Sansevieria; and boll rot of Cotton; spoilage of cashew kernels, dates,
figs, vanilla pods and dried prune (Bobbarala et al.,
2009). A. niger can induce a crown rot of peanuts due to A. niger-infected
seed under specific hot, humid growth conditions (Anderegg
et al., 1976). Kharwar et al. (2008)
isolated A. niger from Catharanthes rosea as an endophytic fungi
which can alter its metabolite production.
||Infection of A. niger in plants: (a) Black rot of onion
and (b) Stem rot of Dracaena sanderiana (Abbasi
and Aliabadi, 2008)
Aspergillus niger as a human pathogen: Aspergillus niger is
believed to be most common storage fungi posing serious threat to contamination
of stored commodities in tropical warm regions of the world. Food and herbal
drug industries are very much suffering from A. niger and its mycotoxin
contamination. It is studied that less that 10% of the A. niger strains
were tested positive for ochratoxin A and fuminisins under conditions that were
favorable (Schuster et al., 2002). Livings beings
including humans, when contacted with A. niger and mycotoxins (ochratoxin
A and fuminisins) usually through consumption may cause many negative effects,
i.e., immunotoxcitiy, carcinogenicity and hepatotoxicity. The effects on animals
include decrease in antibody responses, size reduction in immune organs and
an alteration in the production of cytokine which are proteins and peptides
specifically used in signaling. Poultry feed if contaminated by A. niger
has major affect on the poultry industry. Different animals, such as chicken,
turkey and ducks, are very prone to ochratoxin (Schuster
et al., 2002; May and Adams, 1997).
Aspergillus niger is commonly regarded as a pathogenic allergen generally
associated with lung infections in individuals with weak immune system. Because
the conidia and conidiophores are small, readily air borne, can easily breathed
in and cause deep or systemic mycosis (Kierownik, 1990)
(Table 3). Ear is the location of A. niger infection
(Fig. 4). Local lesions in both external and middle ear, as
well as in post operative cavities, can create favourable conditions for fungal
growth and subsequent otomysis (Kaur et al., 2000;
Kurnatowski and Kilipiak, 2001). A. niger can
produce a secondary metabolites include oxalic acids, kojic acids abundantly
and cyclic pentapeptides having moderate to high acute toxicity (Ueno
and Ueno, 1978). Oxalate crystals of oxalic acids produced by A. niger
can cause pulmonary oxalosis (Nakagawa et al., 1999)
Other risks: Apart from the human and plant pathogenic effects, there
are so many risks/ problems being associated with A. niger. One of the
most important one is its ability to grow on a variety of substrates, causing
deterioration of materials.
|| Ear infection by A. niger in external auditory
This spoilage or deterioration not only reduce the quality of the substrate
but also alter its active components and commercial value. For example, A.
niger causes economic losses due to spoilage of bakery products, fruit,
herbal drugs and vegetables. A. niger also damages surface layers of
wood, raw cotton fibers and many other materials. However, because A. niger
is already ubiquitous, the increased environmental burden of A. niger
due to release from commercial facilities is probably negligible. Thus, the
baseline risk of materials damage by A. niger will not be affected by
the use of A. niger in commercial facilities.
Aspergillus niger is found anywhere in and around of us. In industrial fermentation, A. niger produces many useful enzymes like amylase, amyloglucosidase, cellulases, glucoamylase, lactase, invertase, pectinases. This enhances the importance of fungi in food and drug industries. In addition to beneficial aspects, human beings get frequently exposed to A. niger spores and vegetative forms present in air and on foodstuffs and suffers with allergic problems whereas, specific strains may produce mycotoxins, elicit allergy and carcinogenic responses to lungs, kidney and liver. Although, limited instances of adverse effects seems to be associated with a limited number of strains of A. niger. With proper characterization of different strains, industrial exploration of this important fungus can be increased and potential adverse effects can be avoided.
Abarca, M.L., F. Accensi, J. Cano and F.J. Cabanes, 2004. Taxonomy and significance of black aspergilli. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 86: 33-49.
Abarca, M.L., M.R., Bragulat, G., Sastella and F.J. Cabanes, 1994. Ochratoxin a production by strains of Aspergillus flavus var. niger. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 60: 2650-2652.
Direct Link |
Abbasi, M. and F. Aliabadi, 2008. First report of stem rot of Dracaena caused by Aspergillus niger in Iran. Plant Health Prog. 10.1094/PHP-2008-0212-01-BR
Adebesin, A.A., C.A. Odebode and A.M. Ayodele, 2009. Control of postharvest rots of banana fruits by conidia and culture filtrates of Trichoderma asperellum. J. Plant Prot. Res., 49: 303-308.
Agrawal, G.P., M.K. Thakur and S. Awasthi, 1980. Studies on the wheat grain storage on Madhya Pradesh fungi associated with different varieties of freshly harvested wheat grains. Nat. Acad. Sci. Lett., 3: 195-197.
Al-Abdalall, A.H.A., 2009. Production of aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger strains isolated from seeds of pulses. J. Food Agric. Environ., 7: 33-39.
Anderegg, R.J., K. Biemann, G. Buechi and M. Cushman, 1976. Malformin C, a new metabolite of Aspergillus niger. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 98: 3365-3370.
Avasthi, S., A.K. Gautam and R. Bhadauria, 2010. Antifungal activity of some commonly used spices against A. niger: A potential application in the control of a spoilage fungus. Biol. Forum Int. J., 2: 53-55.
Awuah, R.T. and K.O. Akrasi, 2007. Supression of rot of yam caused by Aspergillus niger with a yam Rhizobacterium. Afr. Crop Sci. Conf. Proc., 8: 875-879.
Direct Link |
Baiyewu, R.A., N. A. Amusa, O.A. Ayoola and O.O. Babalola, 2007. Survey of the post harvest diseases and aflatoxin contamination of marketed pawpaw fruit (Carica papaya L.) in South Western Nigeria. Afr. J. Agric. Res., 2: 178-181.
Direct Link |
Baker, S., 2006. Aspergillus niger genomics: Past, present and into the future. Med. Mycol., 44: 17-21.
Direct Link |
Battilani, P. and A. Pietri, 2002. Ochratoxin A in grapes and wine. Eur. J. Plant Patho., 108: 639-643.
Direct Link |
Belli, N., E. Pardo, S. Marın, G. Farre, A.J. Ramos and V. Sanchis, 2004. Occurrence of ochratoxin A and toxigenic potential of fungal isolates from Spanish grapes. J. Sci. Food Agric., 84: 541-546.
Bennett, J.E., 1979. Aspergillosis. In: Cecil Textbook of Medicine, Beeson, P., W. McDermott and J. Wyngaarden (Eds.). W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp: 546-547.
Bennett, J.W. and M.A. Klich, 1992. Aspergillus: Biology and Industrial Applications. Butterworth Heinemann Publication, USA., ISBN: 0-7506-9124-7.
Bennett, J.W., 1985. Molds, Manufacturing and Molecular Genetics. In: Molecular Genetics of Filamentous Fungi, Timberlake, W.E. (Ed.). Alan R. Liss Inc., New York.
Berry, D., A. Chmiel and Z. Al Obaidi, 1977. Citric acid Production by Aspergillus niger. In: Genetics and Physiology of Aspergillus, Smith, J.E. and J.A. Pateman (Eds.). Academic Press, New York.
Bobbarala, V., P.K. Katikala, K.C. Naidu and S. Penumajji, 2009. Antifungal activity of selected plants extracts against phytopathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger. Ind. J. Sc. Tech., 20: 87-90.
Direct Link |
Debets, A., E. Holub, K. Swart, H. van den Broek and C. Bos, 1990. An electrophoretic karyotype of Aspergillus niger. Mol. Gen. Genet., 224: 264-268.
Durakovic, S., J. Galic and P. Pajnovic, 1989. Toxic and cancer metabolites of moulds in food and fodder. Hrana I. Ishrana, 30: 71-100.
Edwards, J.H. and T.S. AlZubaidy, 1977. Medical Aspects. In: Genetics and Physiology of Aspergillus, Smith, J.E. and J.A. Pateman (Eds.). Academic Press, New York.
Edwin, R., I. Palencia, D.M. Hinton and C.W. Bacon, 2010. The black Aspergillus species of maize and peanuts and their potential for mycotoxin production. Toxins, 2: 399-416.
Direct Link |
Essono, G., M. Ayodele, A. Akoa, J. Foko, S. Olemb and J. Gock, 2007. Aspergillus species on cassava chips in storage in rural areas of southern Cameroon: Their relationship with storage duration, moisture content and processing methods. Afr. J. Microbiol., 1: 1-8.
Direct Link |
Farr, D.F., G.F. Bills, G.P. Chamuris and A.Y. Rossman, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. APS Press, St. Paul, MN..
Gautam, A.K. and R. Bhadauria, 2008. Occurrence of toxigenic moulds and mycotoxins in ayurvedic medicine Trifla Churn. J. Myco. Plant Path., 38: 664-666.
Gautam, A.K. and R. Bhadauria, 2009. Fungal contamination of few common stored herbal fruit samples. Internet J. Nutr. Wellness, Vol. 8.
Gautam, A.K., S. Avasthi, A. Sharma and R. Bhadauria, 2010. Efficacy of triphala churn ingredients against A. niger and potential of clove extract as herbal fungitoxicant. Biol. Med., 2: 1-9.
Direct Link |
Gautam, A.K., S. Sharma and R. Bhadauria, 2009. Detection of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in medicinally important powdered herbal drugs. Int. J. Microbiol., Vol. 7.
Gilman, J.C., 2001. A Manual of Soil Fungi. 2nd Edn., Biotech Books, New Delhi.
Hitokoto, H., S. Morozumi, T. Wauke, S. Saka and H. Kurata, 1978. Fungal contamination and mycotoxin detection of powdered herbal drugs. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 36: 252-256.
Direct Link |
Jong, S.C. and M.J. Gantt, 1987. Catalogue of Fungi and Yeasts. 17th Edn., American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, MD.
Kaur, R., N. Mittal, M. Kakkar, A.K. Aggarwal and M.D. Mathur, 2000. Otomysis: A clinicomycologic study. Ear Nose Throat J., 79: 606-609.
Khan, M.R., M.A. Anwer and F.A. Mohiddin, 2007. Molecular diversity in Aspergillus isolates collected from pigeon pea field in Aligarh region. Environ. Bio. Conser., 12: 59-64.
Kharwar, R.N., V.C. Verma, G. Strobel and D. Ezra, 2008. The endophytic fungal complex of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. Curr. Sci., 95: 228-233.
Direct Link |
Kierownik, 1990. Pulmonary aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus niger. Pneumonol. Pol., 58: 328-333.
Kozakiewicz, Z., 1989. Aspergillus species on stored products. Mycol. Pap., 161: 1-188.
Kurnatowski, P. and A. Kilipiak, 2001. Otomysis: Prevalence, clinical symptoms, therapeutic procedure. Mycoses, 45: 472-479.
Lewis, J.C., C.F. Pierson and M.J. Powers, 1963. Fungi Associated with softening of bisulfite-brined Cherries. Applied Microbiol., 11: 93-99.
Direct Link |
Louthrenoo, W., Y.S. Park, L. Philippe and H.R. Schumacher, 1990. Localized peripheral calcium oxalate crystal deposition caused by Aspergillus niger infection. J. Rheumato., 17: 407-412.
Magnoli, C., M. Violante, M. Combina, G. Palacio and A. Dalcero, 2003. Mycoflora and ochratoxin: A producing strains of Aspergillus section Nigri in wine grapes in Argentina. Lett. Applied Microbiol., 37: 179-184.
Mandeel, Q.A., 2005. Fungal contamination of some imported spices. Mycopathologia, 159: 291-298.
May, G. and T. Adams, 1997. The Importance of fungi to Man. Genome. Res., 7: 1041-1044.
Morya, V.K. and D. Yadav, 2009. Isolation and screening of different isolates of Aspergillus for amylases production. Internet J. Microbiol., Vol. 7.
Muntanola, M., 1987. General Mycology. NIRO. Knjez Evne Novine., Beograd, pp: 257-269.
Nakagawa, Y., K. Shimazu, M. Ebihara and K. Nakagawa, 1999. Aspergillus niger pneumonia with fatal pulmonary oxalosis. J. Infect. Chemother., 5: 97-100.
Narayana, K.J.P., M. Srikanth, M. Vijayalakshmi and N. Lakshmi, 2007. Toxic spectrum of Aspergillus niger causing black mold rot of onions. Res. J. Microbiol., 2: 881-884.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Noonimabc, P., W. Mahakarnchanakulb, K.F. Nielsend, J.C. Frisvadd and R.A. Samsona, 2009. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans. Food Addit. Contam., 26: 94-100.
Padhye, A.A., 1982. Fungi Pathogenic to Man and Animals. In: CRC Handbook of Microbiology, Laskin, A. and H.A. Lechevalier (Eds.). CRC Press, West Palm Beach, FL.
Palacios-Cabrera, H., MH,Taniwaki, J.M. Hashimoto and H.C. De Menezes, 2005. Growth of Aspergillus ochraceus, A. carbonarius and A. niger on culture media at different water activities and temperature. Braz. J. Microbiol., 36: 24-28.
Palencia, E.R., D.M. Hinton and C.W. Bacon, 2010. The black Aspergillus species of maize and peanuts and their potential for mycotoxin production. Toxins, 2: 399-416.
Perfect, J.R., G.M. Cox, J.Y. Lee, S.W. Chapman and C.A. Kauffman et al., 2009. The impact of culture isolation of Aspergillus species: A hospital-based survey of aspergillosis. Clin. Infect. Dis., 33: 1824-1833.
Perrone, G., A. Susca, G. Cozzi, K. Ehrlich and J. Vargas et al., 2007. Biodiversity of Aspergillus species in some important agricultural products. Stud. Mycol., 59: 53-66.
PubMed | Direct Link |
Pitt, J.I. and A.D. Hocking, 1997. Fungi and Food Spoilage. 2nd Edn., Springer, New York, ISBN-10: 0834213060, pp: 593.
Powell, K.A., A. Renwick and J.F. Peberdy, 1994. The genus Aspergillus, from taxonomy and genetics to industrial application. Plenum Press, New York.
Prakash, O. and M.A. Raoof, 1989. Control of mango fruit decay with post harvest application of various chemicals against black rot, stem end rot and anthracnose disease. Int. J. Trop. Plant Dis., 6: 99-106.
Purchase, I.F.H., 1974. Mycotoxins. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp: 1-28.
Rai, V. and S. Mehrotra, 2005. Toxic contaminants in herbal drugs. Environ. News Arch., 11: 1-3.
Raper, K.B. and D.I. Fennell, 1965. The genus Aspergillus. Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore, MD.
Reddy, K.R.N., C.S. Reddy and K. Muralidharan, 2009. Detection of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in rice in India. Food Microbiol., 26: 27-31.
Richard, L., M.D. Kradin, J. Eugene and M.D. Mark, 2008. The pathology of pulmonary disorders due to Aspergillus spp. Arch. Path. Lab. Med., 132: 606-614.
Roy, A.K. and H.K. Chourasia, 1990. Mycoflora, mycotoxin producibility and mycotoxins in traditional herbal drugs from India. J. Genet. Applied Microbiol., 36: 295-302.
Samson, R.A., J.A.M.P. Houbraken, A.F.A. Kuijpers, J.M. Frank and J.C. Frisvad, 2004. New ochratoxin or sclerotium producing species in Aspergillus section Nigri. Stud. Mycol., 50: 45-61.
Direct Link |
Sareen, A., R. Ahirwar, A. Gautam and R. Bhadauria, 2010. Fungal contamination of some common medicinal plant samples of Himachal Pradesh. Sci. Cult., 76: 118-120.
Direct Link |
Schuster, E., N. Dunn-Coleman, J.C. Frisvad and P.W. van Dijck, 2002. On the safety of Aspergillus niger: A review. Applied Microbiol. Biotechnol., 59: 426-435.
CrossRef | PubMed |
Schwartz, B., O. Shoseyov, V.O. Melnikova, M. McCarty and M. Leslie et al., 2007. ACTIBIND, a T2 RNase, competes with angiogenin and inhibits human melanoma growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Cancer Res., 67: 5258-5266.
Sharma, R.C. and D. Vir, 1986. Post harvest diseases of grapes and studies on their control with benzimidazole derivatives and other fungicides. Pesticides, 20: 1415-1415.
Singh, P., B. Srivastava, A. Kumar and N.K. Dubey, 2008. Fungal contamination of raw materials of some herbal drugs and recommendation of Cinnamomum camphora oil as herbal fungitoxicant. Micro. Eco., 56: 555-560.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Sinha, P. and S.K. Saxena, 1987. Effect of treating tomatoes with leaf extract of Lantana camara on development of fruit rot caused by A. niger in presence of Drosophila busckii. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 25: 143-144.
Someren, K., H.C.M. Kester, R.A. Samson and J. Visser, 1990. Variations in Pectolytic Enzymes of the Black Aspergilli: A Biochemical and Genetic Approach. In: Modern Concepts in Penicillium and Aspergillus Classification, Samson, R.A. and J.I. Pitt (Eds.). Plenum Press, New York.
Staiano, M., P. Bazzicalupo, M. Rossi and S. DAuria, 2005. Glucose biosensors as models for the development of advanced protein-based biosensors. Mol. BioSyst., 1: 354-362.
Takahashi, K., H. Inoue, K. Sakai, T. Kohama and S. Kitahara et al., 1991. The primary structure of Aspergillus niger acid proteinase A. J. Biol. Chem., 266: 19480-19483.
Direct Link |
Thompson, L., M.A. Castrillon, M. Delgado and M. Garcia, 1994. Isolation of several species of the genus Aspergillus from soil of intrahospital ornamental plants. Revista Medica de Chile, 122: 1367-1371.
Truckesses, M.W. and P.M. Scott, 2008. Mycotoxins in botanicals and dried fruits: A review. Food Addit. Contam., 25: 181-192.
Ueno, Y. and I. Ueno, 1978. Toxicology and Biochemistry of Mycotoxins. In: Toxicology, Bochemistry and Pathology of Mycotoxins, Uraguchi, K. and M. Yamazaki (Eds.). John Wiley and Sons, Halstead Press, New York.
Versar, 1991. Screening Level Exposure Assessment of Aspergillus Species for 5(h)(4) Exemption Under the Proposed Biotech Rule. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Walsh, T.J. and P.A. Pizzo, 1988. Nosocomial fungal infections: A classification for hospitalacquired fungal infections and mycoses arising from endogenous flora or reactivation. Ann. Rev. Microbiol., 42: 517-545.
Direct Link |
Ward, O.P., 1989. Fermentation Biotechnology. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.