Enteric Bacteria Associated with Farmed Freshwater Fish and its Culture Environment in Kerala, India
K.H. Sabeena Farvin,
A study was designed to investigate the enteric bacterial population associated with farmed freshwater fish and its environment, limnological quality of carp farm and the existing association between these parameters. Enteric indicator bacterial counts were determined following the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) methods and the physico-chemical parameters according to the standard methods of American Public Health Association (APHA). Fish samples yielded mean microbiological counts in the range of 4.19 to 4.85 log CFU g-1, sediment in the range of 5.18±0.01 to 6.34±0.01 log CFU g-1, pond water in the range of 3.64±0.03 to 6.10±0.04 log CFU mL-1. Fish and feeder canal water showed higher count for all indicator bacterial count. Sediment showed 2 log cycle higher count of sulphite reducing clostridia. Emerging pathogen E. coli O157:H7 were absent in all the samples analyzed. Aeromonas (26.2%) followed by Enterobacter (24.6%) were the dominant flora recovered. Escherichia, Klebsiella, Serratia, Hafnia, Plesiomonas, Shigella, Salmonella, Morganella and Yersinia were the other opportunistic enteric bacterial pathogens detected from this system. The rearing practices such as natural fertilization and feeding could have influenced the enteric flora. Study on the various physico-chemical parameters of pond water revealed that they were within the suitable range for the freshwater fish culture throughout farming phase. Correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between physico-chemical parameters such as total organic carbon (TOC), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) with that of Total Plate Count (TPC), Total Enterobacteriaceae Count (TEC), Total Coliforms (TC), Faecal Coliforms (FC) and E. coli (EC). Presence of bacteria of public health significance in the aquaculture ponds envisages a strict hygienic handling and processing of fish from the culture systems for ensuring public health safety.
India witnessed an overwhelming growth of the aquaculture sector during the
last two decades and ranked second in aquaculture production. Carp culture plays
an indispensable role with a percentage contribution of 93.6 to freshwater aquaculture
production of India (FAO, 2005). While this growth is much appreciated in terms
of food security, the health risk associated with the aquaculture produce is
another important concern. In recent times increased attention is given to the
possibility of cultured fish as vector of human pathogenic bacteria (Apun et
al., 1999; Islam et al., 2000). Fish living in natural environment
are known to harbour pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae (Pillay, 1990). Invasion
of fish muscles due to the breakage of immunological barrier of fish by pathogens
is likely to occur, when the fish are raised in ponds with faecal coliforms,
E. coli and Salmonella of greater than 104, 103-4
and 105 per 100 mL in pond water, respectively (Guzman et al.,
2004). Ogbondeminu and Okoeme (1989) reported that 50% of the microorganisms
recovered from both fish and water of earthen pond fertilized with animal faecal
waste were members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. In addition, most
diseases in humans are caused by opportunistic enteric pathogens, which are
prevalent in the rearing environment (Brock, 1993; Jayasree et al., 1999).
Reports of the occurrence of pathogenic strains of E. coli from fisheries
sources and outbreaks of illness due to them were also increasing (Samadpour
et al., 1994; Kumar et al., 2001; Teophilo et al., 2002).
The microbial shifting with reference to indicator quality and enteric bacteria and their relationship with water quality during farming phase was an unexplored area in carp farm. Hence, it is essential to investigate the composition of enteric flora associated with carp grow-out culture in order to develop safe farm management practices for the production of carp safe for human consumption (Reilly and Kaferstein, 1999). Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate the enteric bacterial population associated with farmed freshwater fish and its environment, limnological quality of carp farm and the existing association between this parameter. The information obtained should allow a better control of the bacteriological parameters in the aquacultured carps and also a better control of processing to reduce the possible microbial risks.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The pond chosen for the study was a composite carp culture farm situated in Thiruvankulam, Kerela, India. This is an earthen pond having an area of 0.4 ha with a stocking density of 10,000 fingerlings ha-1 at a ratio of 3: 4:1:2 for catla, rohu, mrigal and grass carp, respectively. The pond was surrounded by two rearing pond in two sides, third and fourth side was covered by feeder canal and a freshwater body. Pond dykes were covered with grass and pond bottom was silty. The pond was fertilized with natural manure (cow dung) initially and continued every 15 days according to the nutrient status. Feeding was by farm made feeds prepared out of rice bran and groundnut oil cake. There was periodic water exchange by pumping the water from the feeder canal, which was always covered with aquatic weeds like pistia, lemna, cerotopyllum, etc. and contained aquatic animals like snails.
Four sampling was done with a periodic interval of 2 months to cover the
culture period of eight months. Fish samples ten each in a sampling period were
harvested by cast net and put in sterile polythene bag. Water samples were collected
from four different location of the pond by inverting the sterile polystyrene
bottle to about 30 cm below the surface and a well-mixed homogeneous sample
was used for analysis. Feeder canal water samples were collected in the same
manner. Pond sediment were scooped out from four different locations of the
pond and collected in a sterile polythene bag. All the samples were kept in
icebox carried to laboratory. Analysis was initiated within 2 h of sample collection.
Sampling was done between 08: 00 to 09: 00 h Indian Standard Time (IST).
Water Quality Parameters
Water temperature, pH and salinity were determined by thermometer, digital
pH meter (Cyberscan, USA) and refracto meter, respectively at the farm location.
Transparency was measured using Secchi disc (Trivedy and Goel, 1984). Total
Suspended Solids (TSS) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) were analysed according to
the standard methods for examination of water and wastewater (APHA/AWWA/WEF,
1998). TOC, NO3-N (nitrate nitrogen), BOD, COD, Surfactant, were
measured by properly calibrated pastel UV spectrophotometer (SECOMAM RS 232,
France) with a spectral range of 200 to 320 nm. Turbidity was measured by employing
the digital turbidity meter (Merck, USA). Conductivity of the water was measured
by using electronic conductivity meter (CIFT, India).
Ten grams of the muscle portion of fish along with skin and sediment samples
were homogenized for 1 min with 90 mL of saline (0.85% NaCl) in a stomacher
400 lab blender (Seward, London, UK). Fish, sediment and water samples were
serially diluted and used for analysis. The total plate count was enumerated
by pour plating the samples on tryptone glucose agar (TGA), Total Enterobacteriaceae
count on violet red bile glucose agar (VRBGA, Oxoid, Basingstoke, UK) and faecal
Streptococci in Kenner Faecal streptococcus Agar (KF) (USFDA, 2001).
Total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli counts were estimated by a three-tube/five tube most-probable number (MPN) procedure for fish/sediment and water samples, respectively with the following modification. Aliquots of serially diluted samples were inoculated into MacConkey broth (Oxoid, UK) and incubated at 37°C for 24-48 h. Positive tubes were (1) subjected to an MPN procedure in brilliant green lactose bile broth (Oxoid, UK) at 37°C for 24-48 h and (2) subjected to elevated coliform (Difco, BD, Frankline Lakes, NJ, USA) and indole (Difco, USA) broths at 44.5°C. Positives in Brilliant Green Lactose Broth (BGLB), elevated coliform (EC) broth and Indole were noted down and referred to McCardys MPN table to determine the total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli counts, respectively. A loopful of bacteria culture from indole positive tubes was streaked on eosine methylene blue agar (EMB agar, BBL, BD, Sparks, Md.) and characteristic E. coli colonies were isolated and confirmed by indole-methyl red-Voges-Proskauer-citrate (IMViC) tests (APHA/AWWA/WEF, 1998). Sulphite reducing clostridia were analysed by MPN method using differential reinforced clostridia medium (DRCM) (USFDA, 2001).
Detection of E. coli O157:H70
Twenty five grams of the fish muscle with skin, sediment and 25 mL of water
samples were enriched in 225 mL of modified elevated coliform broth (Difco,
USA) containing novobiocin (20 mg mL-1; Sigma, St. Louis, Mo.) at
42°C with shaking (150 rpm). After an overnight incubation, diluted enrichment
samples were plated on MacConkey sorbitol agar (Oxoid, UK) supplemented with
cefixime (SR 0191, Oxoid, UK) and potassium tellurite (March and Ratman, 1986).
Plates were incubated overnight at 37°C and sorbitol-negative colonies
were isolated at a rate of two to three colonies per sample. After isolate purification,
they were streaked on EMB agar and confirmed isolates were checked for MUG (methylumbelliferyl-β-glucuronide)
reaction and IMViC test. MUG and sorbitol-positive E. coli (ATCC 25922)
were used as controls for checking sorbitol and MUG reactions. Isolates that
were sorbitol and MUG negative were tested for latex agglutination with E.
coli serotype O157 specific antisera as per manufacturers instruction
Characterization of Enteric Bacteria
For identification 2-5 well-separated typical colonies from VRBGA plates
were selected using Harrisons disc method (Harrigan and McCance, 1976).
These cultures were purified and stored for further study in nutrient agar slants.
Altogether, 130 pure culture isolates were obtained and identified up to the
genus level with the help of an identification scheme from web http://www.vet.uga.edu/WEBFILES/
in consultation with Edwards and Ewing (1972) and MacFaddin (1980). About 5%
of the isolates were crosschecked for identification using analytical profile
index 20E (API 20E, bioMerieux).
All the results were produced as mean and mean log±standard deviation
values for water quality and microbiological parameters, respectively. Statistical
analysis between the means was accomplished using tukeys test and a two-tailed
Pearsons correlation analysis was carried out. The statistical package
used in the study is SPSS, 10.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Physico-chemical Characteristics of Water
The range of temperature and pH recorded for pond water were 28.10±0.26
to 30.8±0.20 and 6.15±0.03 to 7.84±0.02, respectively (Table
1). The maximum salinity in both pond (0.20 ppt) and feeder canal water
(0.23 ppt) was during last phase of sampling which fell on summer months. The
temperature, pH, salinity and NO3-N recorded in the pond and feeder
canal water were within the desirable range for freshwater fish culture (IS
13891, 1994) and comparable to earlier reported values from tropical fish ponds
(Pilarski et al., 2004; El-Shafai et al., 2004). El-shafai et
al. (2004) reported a very low level of TSS 5±2 in tilapia pond.
However, in this study it was much higher and reached up to 62.67±2.02
and 83.33±1.16 in pond and feeder canal water, respectively. Surfactants
in the fishpond should not form any film and obstruct fish growth (IS 13891,
1994). Though surfactants were detected in pond and comparatively higher quantities
in feeder canal water, they were not to the extent of obstructing fish growth.
As culture period progresses, TOC, BOD, COD, Turbidity (except third quarter)
showed an increasing trend and DO showed a decreasing trend in pond water.
parameters of pond and feeder canal water quality of rohu fish farm
|Where, TSS-Total suspended solids, TOC-Total organic carbon,
COD-Chemical oxygen demand, BOD-Biological oxygen demand, SDT-Secchi disc
transparency, DO-Dissolved oxygen ppt-parts per thousand, ppm-parts per
million, NTU-Neplometric turbidity unit, cm-centimetre, Results are presented
as mean ± standard deviation (SD), a,b,c,dMeans in a column
with the same superscript letters are not significantly different (p>0.05)
This may be due to the rise in the level of fish biomass towards the end of
the culture (Markosova and Jezek, 1994; Komarkova et al., 1986). The
range of TOC, COD, BOD, Turbidity and DO in pond water were 3.97±0.15
to 7.53±0.15 ppm, 11.97±0.15 to 24.80±0.36 ppm, 5.57±0.15
to 11.13±0.31 ppm, 20.67±0.58 to 29.67±0.58 NTU and 3.28±0.07
to 4.69±0.19 ppm, respectively. They were significantly different (p<0.05)
in different quarters of culture period (Table 1). Other studies
recorded a slightly higher DO for carp and Tilapia ponds in pond water (Pilarski
et al., 2004; El-shafai et al., 2004). The turbidity levels were
always well above the tolerable level for freshwater fish culture of 10 NTU
(IS 13891, 1994) but similar to level recorded in pig manured (45 to 65 ppm)
and non manured (35 to 25 ppm) common carp pond (Pilarski et al., 2004).
A similar trend as above was absent in feeder canal water and showed high fluctuations
among different quarters. Conductivity was maximum in the last sampling and
a similar trend was noticed both water samples.
Microbial Quality of Fish and Pond Environment
The microbial quality of the samples of fish, sediment, feeder canal and
pond water at four different stages of culture period are shown in the Table
2. The TPC of the above samples ranged between 3.64±0.03 and 6.47±0.03
log CFU g-1. The range obtained for fish samples were 4.19 to 4.85
log CFU g-1 (Table 2). A TPC of 3 to 5 log CFU
g-1 was widely documented for carp samples from different part of
the world (Sugita et al., 1985; Ogbondeminu, 1993; Jeyasekaran and Ayyappan,
2003). However, the present level of TPC for carp muscle with skin was 1-2 log
CFU g-1 lower than the reported TPC for gill and intestines of carp
samples (Nedoluha and Westhoff, 1997; Hatha et al., 2000). Sediment samples
showed 1-2 log CFU g-1 higher TPC values than fish and water samples
(3.64±0.03 to 6.47±0.03 log CFU mL-1) as reported in
earlier studies (Sugita et al., 1985; Jun et al., 2000).
In general indicator organisms viz., Total Enterobacteriaceae (TE),
Total Coliforms (TC), Faecal Coliforms (FC) and E. coli (EC) were recorded
highest in feeder canal water followed by fish, pond water and sediment (Table
quality of rohu fish farm during different phase of culture
|Results are presented as mean ± standard deviation
(SD).a,b,c,d Means in a column with the same superscript letters
are not significantly different (p>0.05),TPC-Total Plate Count, TEC-Total
Enterobacteriaceae count, TCC-Total coliforms count, FCC-Faecal coliform
count, ECC-E. coli count, FSC-Faecal streptococci count, SRCC-Sulphite
reducing clostridia count
The range recorded for TE, TC and FC, respectively are 0 to 4.47±0.02,
0 to 3.45±0.05 and 0 to 3.20±0.05 log CFU mL-1. These
results are comparable or one log cycle lower than the natural manure fertilized
fish culture ponds stocked with carps, tilapia etc. (Quines, 1988; Pilarski
et al., 2004). Surendran et al. (1995) observed consistently elevated
levels of TE, TC and FC in freshwater fish and shellfish than brackish water
and marine fishes and concluded that these were native flora of cultured freshwater
fish and prawn.
All the analyzed samples except one sediment sample were contaminated with E. coli. However, earlier studies reported a comparatively low level of contamination by E. coli (0 to 50% of the samples) on carps from India (Nair and Nair, 1988; Jeyasekaran and Ayyappan, 2003). Feeder canal showed a higher level of all microbial parameters due to the presence of aquatic weeds, aquatic animals like snails and run off from near by agriculture land, which are potential source of contamination (Ferguson et al., 1996; Islam et al., 2000).
Faecal Streptococci (FS) were detected in fish (less than 2 to 2.92±0.01 log CFU g-1) and feeder canal water samples (range less than 2 log CFU g-1 to 268±0.05 log CFU mL-1). It was less than 2 log CFU g-1 in pond water and was detected only in second phase of culture in the case of sediment samples. This was in accordance with an earlier study (Niemi and Taipalinen, 1982). The authors reported a very low count in sediment. All the enteric bacterial counts were comparatively lower in pond water. It was reported that sunlight play a significant role in their survival, which was prominent in pondwater than feedercanal water due to higher surface area and absence of vegetation in pondwater (Ferguson et al., 1996). Sulphite reducing clostridia was detected in all samples and was high in sediment samples followed by feeder canal water, pond water and fish (Table 2). This may be due to the prevalence of anaerobic condition in the sediments and sediment was reported as potential reservoir for aquatic bacteria especially anaerobic bacteria like SRC (Ferguson et al., 1996). Though there are reports of occurrence of pathogenic strains of E. coli from market seafood from different part of the world (Samadpour et al., 1994; Teophilo et al., 2002) and India (Kumar et al., 2001), it is clear from the findings of the present study that all samples of fish, sediment and water from fresh water fish farm studied were free from the emerging pathogen E. coli O157:H7.
An increasing trend for almost all the microbial parameters as culture progresses was noticed in fish (from phase II onwards) and both water samples. Increased fish biomass, accumulation of fish faeces and leftover feed in the earthen pond may have contributed to the higher count towards at the end (Davis and Goulder, 1993; Markosova and Jezek, 1994). The first phase of sampling was during a heavy rainy season and hence surface run off might have contributed to the abnormally high count.
Composition of Enteric Bacteria in Carp Farms
Characterization of 130 enteric bacterial isolates from carp farm revealed
that Aeromonas sp. (26.2%), a non Enterobacteriaceae member and
common contaminant of fish and its environment (Thampuran and Surendran, 1998;
Apun et al., 1999; Hatha et al., 2000), was the dominant flora.
This was closely followed by Enterobacter sp. (24.6%). Other genera recovered
include Escherichia, Klebsiella, Serratia, Hafnia,
Plesiomonas, Shigella, Salmonella, Morganella and Yersinia.
Recovery of Aeromonas sp. as dominant genera in this study was of concern
for well beings of fish, as it was established as the secondary infecting agent
in rohu fingerlings (Sugumar et al., 2002). Fish samples harbored the
diverse group of bacteria and as many as 8 genera were detected. Escherichia/Aeromonas,
Klebsiella, Aeromonas and Enterobacter were the dominant
flora of fish, feed, sediment and water samples, respectively (Table
of enteric bacteria among different samples
|Note: PW-Pond water, SW-Seawater, FD-Feed
The present results were similar to earlier studies on Cyprinid and other fishes
and their environment (Niemi and Taipalinen, 1982; Apun et al., 1999;
Ampofo and Clerk, 2003). Escherichia which was recovered from all the
samples except feed in the present study and was reported as predominant enteric
bacteria from intestines of freshwater fishes (carp, tilapia and catfish) and
pond water (Niemi and Taipalinen, 1982; Ogbondeminu, 1993). Citrobacter,
Proteus, isolated in earlier studies (Niemi and Taipalinen, 1982; Apun
et al., 1999) were absent in this study.
There are reports of isolation of different members of Enterobacteriaceae viz., Edwardsiella ictaluri, E. tarda, Proteus roettgeri, Yersinia ruckeri, Erwinia sp., Serratia, Citrobacter freundii, Aeromonas, Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, as potential fish and human pathogens from natural manured carps, stripped bass, tilapia, eel and its earthen culture environment (Nair and Nair, 1988; Karunasagar et al., 1992; Nedoluha and Westhoff, 1997; Muratori et al., 2000) and their occurrence was much higher in integrated fish culture systems (Ogbondeminu, 1993). In the present study Salmonella and Shigella was recovered from sediment and water samples only and others were absent. Though fish was free from all the above pathogens (except Yersinia), there exist an inherent risk of contamination by pathogens present in environment as observed in natural manured earthen ponds (Nedoluha and Westhoff, 1997). The results indicated that Aeromonas and Enterobacter were recovered through out the farming phase and highest recovery was in second and fourth quarter, respectively. Escherichia was not detected in the second quarter and were consistently present in all other quarters. Potential human pathogens Shigella, Yersinia, Klebsiella and Morganella were recovered only in third and fourth quarters except in the case of Salmonella. Maximum diversity of enteric bacteria was noticed in third phase. (Table 4).
Correlation Between Physico-chemical and Microbial Parameters
The relationship between physico-chemical parameters and bacterial count
attracted much of attention (Ogbondeminu and Adeniji, 1984; Guo et al.,
1988; Ferguson et al., 1996). In this study correlation between freshwater
pond microbiological quality and physic-chemical parameters was established
using the two tailed Pearsons correlation coefficient (p<0.05 and 0.01).
It was observed that water temperature showed a negative effect on all bacterial
indicator parameters analysed except EC and FS in pond water (p<0.05).
in the composition of enteric bacteria during rohu farming
Similarly, Ferguson et al. (1996) reported the killing effect of temperature
on various indicator bacterial parameters. Conversely there were reports (Sugita
et al., 1985; Markosova and Jezek, 1994) showing that populations of
indicator bacteria increased with increasing water temperature as temperature
become favorable for growth of bacteria during summer months. TOC, BOD and COD
indicates directly or indirectly the organic pollution status and a change in
above of pond and feeder canal water positively affected TPC, Total coliforms,
Faecal coliforms, E. coli count (significant at p<0.05 and 0.01).
It was reported that organic matter helps in greater survival of aquatic bacteria
(Gerba and McLeod, 1976) and their increase in water lead to the significant
increment in density of FC and FS (Sugita et al., 1985; Ferguson et
Similar to an earlier observation involving estuary water (Ferguson et al., 1996), in this study also turbidity showed a positive correlation to pond water TPC (p<0.05). Pal and Das Gupta (1992) established that environment could influence the microflora of the fish and pond systems. Several authors showed a significantly positive correlation between TPC of pond water and fish (Ogbondeminu, 1993; Apun et al., 1999). In the present study pond water microbial parameters TPC, TE, TC, FC, EC and SRC showed a significant positive correlation with fish TPC (p<0.01), FS (p<0.01) and SRC (p<0.05).
The enteric bacterial counts were detected in higher numbers and some of the members recovered in this study like Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia were established fish/human pathogens. E. coli has an assertive existence in carp ponds, which is evident from their wide spread prevalence across farming phase and among all samples analysed. Further study on the antibiotic resistance profile of these enteric pathogens could establish the real threat posed by these organisms. However, detection of diverse group of enteric bacteria including potential pathogens in the carp culture ponds suggests that strict hygiene procedures should be followed during handling and processing of fish from the similar culture systems and proper cooking prior to consumption to prevent the transfer of potentially pathogenic bacteria to humans. Good correlation between the bacterial population and the water quality variables like TOC, BOD, COD opens up an avenue for research in this line to establish a water quality and microbial quality model useful in assessing the quality and safety status of farm raised fish.
The Authors express their sincere thanks to Director, Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Cochin, India for providing necessary facilities, support to carry out this study and for giving permission to publish this research. The financial aid as institutional fellowship from CIFE, Mumbai for Dr. A. Surendraraj is greatly acknowledged.
APHA., AWWA. and WEF., 1998. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th Edn., American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation, Washington, DC., USA., ISBN-13: 9780875532356, Pages: 1220.
Ampofo, J.A. and G.C. Clerk, 2003. Bacterial flora of fish feeds and organic fertilizers for fish culture ponds in Ghana. Aquac. Res., 34: 677-680.
Apun, K., A.M. Yusof and K. Jugang, 1999. Distribution of bacteria in tropical freshwater fish and ponds. Int. J. Environ. Health Res., 9: 285-292.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Brock, J.A., 1993. A Synopsis of Pathology, Diseases and Problems of Cultured Macrobrachium, with an Emphasis on Experiences in Hawaiian Prawn Farming. In: CRC Handbook of Mariculture, Vol: I Crustacean Aquaculture, James, P. and Vey Mc (Eds.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA., ISBN-10: 0849302552, pp: 361-391.
Davis, S.H. and R. Goulder, 1993. Deterioration in bacteriological quality of water through fish farms. J. Applied Bacteriol., 74: 336-339.
Edwards, P.R. and W.H. Ewing, 1972. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae. 3rd Edn., Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis.
El-Shafai, S.A., H.J. Gijzen, F.A. Nasr and F.A. El-Gohary, 2004. Microbial quality of tilapia reared in faecal contaminated ponds. Environ. Res., 95: 231-238.
FAO, 2005. FAO Yearbook Fishery Statistics: Aquaculture Production. Vol. 96/2. FAO, FIDSU, Rome, Italy, pp: 195.
Ferguson, C.M., B.G. Coote, N.J. Ashbolt and I.M. Stevenson, 1996. Relationships between indicators, pathogens and water quality in an estuarine system. Water Res., 30: 2045-2054.
Gerba, C.P. and J.S. McLeod, 1976. Effect of sediments on the survival of Escherichia coli in marine waters. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 32: 114-120.
Guo, X., Y. Fang and J. Wang, 1988. The preliminary studies on the bacteria types in the fish ponds applied with four kinds of animal manure and the effects upon ecosystem and yield. J. Chinese Acad. Fish. Sci., 1: 18-28.
Guzman, M.C., M.A. Bistoni, L.M. Tamagninii and R.D. Gonzalez, 2004. Recovery of Escherichia coli in fresh water fish, Jenynsia mulidenttata and Byrconamericus iheringi. Water Res., 38: 2368-2374.
Harrigan, W.F. and M.E. McCance, 1976. Laboratory Methods in Food and Dairy Microbiology. Academic Press, London, UK.
Hatha, A.A.M., S. Kuruvilla and S. Cheriyan, 2000. Bacterial flora of the intestines of farm raised freshwater fishes Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Ctenophayyngodon idella. Fish. Tech., 37: 59-62.
IS 13891, 1994. Quality Tolerances for Freshwater for Fish Culture. Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi.
Islam, M.S., A. Begum, S.I. Khan, M.A. Sadique and M.N.H. Khan et al., 2000. Microbiology of pond ecosystems in rural Bangladesh: Its public health implications. Int. J. Environ. Stud., 58: 33-46.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Jayasree, L., P.R. Janaki and R. Madhavi, 1999. Shell disease in the freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de. Man): Etiology, Pathogenicity and Antibiotic sensitivity. J. Aquac. Trop., 14: 289-298.
Jeyasekaran, G. and S. Ayyappan, 2003. Microbiological quality of farm-reared freshwater fish, rohu (Labeo rohita). Ind. J. Fish., 50: 455-459.
Jun, X., F. Xiuzheng and Y. Tongbing 2000. Physical and chemical factors and bacteria in fish ponds. Naga: World Fish Centre Q., 23: 16-20.
Karunasagar, I., I. Karunasagar and R. Pai, 1992. Systemic Citrobacter freundii infection in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings. J. Fish Dis., 15: 95-98.
Komarkova, J., R. Faina and J. Parizek, 1986. Influence of the watershed and fish stock upon the fish pond biocenoses. Limnologica, 17: 335-354.
Kumar, H.S., S. Ottu, I. Karunasagar and I. Karunasagar, 2001. Detection of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) in fresh seafood and meat marketed in Mangalore, India by PCR. Lett. Applied Microbiol., 32: 334-338.
MacFaddin, 1980. Biochemical Tests for Identification of Medical Bacteria. 2nd Edn., Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, USA., ISBN-10: 0683053159, pp: 51-54.
March, S.B. and S. Ratman, 1986. Sorbitol MacConkey medium for detection of Escherichia coli O157: H7 associated with hemorrhagic colitis. J. Clin. Microbiol., 23: 869-872.
Markosova, R. and J. Jezek, 1994. Indicator bacteria and limnological parameters in fishponds. Water Res., 28: 2477-2485.
Muratori, C.S., A.L. De Oliveira, L.P. Ribeiro, R.C. Leite, A.P.R. Costa and M.C.C. Da Silva, 2000. Edwardsiella tarda isolated in integrated fish farming. Aquac. Res., 31: 481-483.
Nair, K.K.S. and R.B. Nair, 1988. Bacteriological quality of fresh water fish from krishnarajendrasagr reservoir. Fish. Technol., 25: 79-80.
Nedoluha, P.C. and D. Westhoff, 1997. Microbiology of striped bass grown in three aquaculture systems. Food Microbiol., 14: 255-264.
Niemi, M. and I. Taipalinen, 1982. Faecal indicator bacteria at fish farms. Hydrobiologia, 86: 171-175.
Ogbondeminu, F.S. and A.N. Okaeme, 1989. Comparative analysis of bacterial flora associated with water and fish in manured pond. Biosci. Res. Comm., 1: 103-108.
Ogbondeminu, F.S. and H.A. Adeniji, 1984. Comparative study of bacterial flora in relation to water quality of fertilized and nonfertilized fish ponds in Nigeria. Kainji lake Research Institute Annual Report, pp: 32-39.
Ogbondeminu, F.S., 1993. The occurrence and distribution of enteric bacteria in fish and water of tropical ponds in Nigeria. J. Aquac. Trop., 8: 61-66.
Direct Link |
Pal, D. and C.A.F. Das-Gupta, 1992. Microbial pollution in water and its effect on fish. J. Aquat. Anim. Health, 4: 32-39.
Pilarski, F., O.T. Junior, J.M. Casaca, F.R.M. Garcia, I.B. Tomazelli and I.R. Santos, 2004. Integrated fish/pig systems: Environmental feature and fish quality R. Bras. Zootec., 23: 267-276.
Pillay, T.V.R., 1990. Fish and Public Health and Disease. In: Aquauclture, Principles and Practices, Pillay, T.V.R. (Ed.). Fishing News Book, Farnham, UK., ISBN: 0-85238-168-9, pp: 174-215.
Quines, O.D., 1988. Microorganisms: Indicators of pollution in integrated livestock-fish farming systems. Environ. Int., 14: 531-534.
Reilly, A. and F. Kaferstein, 1998. Food safety and products from aquaculture. J. Applied Microbiol., 85: 249S-257S.
CrossRef | PubMed |
Samadpour, M., J.E. Ongerth, J. Liston, N. Tran and D. Nguyen et al., 1994. Occurrence of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli in retail fresh seafood, beef, lamb, pork and poultry from grocery stores in Seattle, Washington. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 60: 1038-1040.
Sugita, H., T. Fushino, K. Oshima and Y. Deguchi, 1985. Microflora in the water and sediment of freshwater culture ponds. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish. NISSUISHI., 51: 91-97.
Sugumar, G., I. Karunasagar and I. Karunasagar, 2002. Mass mortality of fingerlings of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) in a nursery pond. Ind. J. Fish., 49: 305-309.
Surendran, P.K., N. Thampuran and K. Gopakumar, 1995. Microbial profile of cultured fishes and prawns viz a viz their spoilage and contamination. FAO Fisheries Report Suppl. 514, FAO, Rome.
Teophilo, G.N., R.H. Dos-Fernandes-Vieira, D. Dos-Prazeres-Rodrigues and F.G. Menezes, 2002. Escherichia coli isolated from seafood: Toxicity and plasmid profiles. Int. Microbiol., 5: 11-14.
Thampuran, N. and P.K. Surendran, 1995. Incidence of motile aeromonads in marine environment, fishes and processed fishery products. Proceedings of the National Symposium on Technological Advancements in Fisheries and its Impact on Rural Development held at Cochin by School of Industrial Fisheries, December 5-7, 1995, Cochin, pp: 352-358.
Trivedy, R.K. and P.K. Goel, 1984. . Chemical and Biological Method for Water Pollution. Studies Environmental Pub., India.
USFDA, 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Revised. 8th Edn., AOAC, Washington DC, USA.