Isolation and Identification of Biosurfactant Producing Actinomycetes From Soil
Two hundred and twenty-nine soil actinomycete strains
were initially screened for extracellular biosurfactant activity by a
drop-collapse method in Kim`s medium containing sesame oil as a sole source
of carbon. Three isolates, namely S71, S72 and S177, were capable of biosurfactant
production. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis strongly suggested that
they were members of the genus Streptomyces. The isolates S71 and
S177 were closely related to S. griseoflavus sharing 99% 16S rRNA
gene similarities, whereas S72 was closely related to S. fradiae
sharing only 98% 16S rRNA gene similarities suggesting that this may represent
a novel species. The cell-free culture broth of the three isolates had
emulsification activity and decreased surface tension. According to emulsification
activity (E24) and surface tension values observed in the three isolates,
Streptomyces sp. S72 was selected for biosurfactant production
in larger scale. The cell-free culture broth of the isolate S72 was further
extracted with chloroform:methanol (2:1) and two fractions were found
positive in producing biosurfactants. To determine structure and molecular
weight of the two positive fractions, the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
spectroscopy and Mass Spectrometry (MS) will be carried out.
Biosurfactants are biological surface-active compounds produced
by microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts and fungi from various sources
of substrates including sugars, oils, alkanes and wastes (Lin, 1996).
These compounds are amphipathic molecules containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic
domains. Biosurfactants reduce surface and interfacial tensions in both
aqueous solutions and hydrocarbon mixtures, which make them potential
candidates in enhancing oil recovery and in the emulsification process
(Lin, 1996; Maier, 2003). Compared to chemical surfactants, biosurfactants
hold significant advantages including lower toxicity, higher structural
diversity and concomitant diversity in properties. In addition, biosurfactants
may be produced from renewable resources with a higher biodegradability
and better environmental compatibility.
In terms of production, it has been observed that biosurfactants are
commonly produced in the stationary phase of microbial growth, for instance,
in Bacillus subtilis MTCC 2423 (Makkar and Cameotra, 1997) and
Arthrobacter paraffineus ATCC 19558 (Duvnlak et al., 1982).
The environmental factors and growth conditions of the culture such as
pH, temperature, agitation and oxygen availability have also been shown
to affect biosurfactant production through their effects on cellular growth
or activity (Desai and Banat, 1977). In addition, biosurfactant production
using water-soluble carbon sources was inferior to that obtained with
water-immiscible substrates such as n-alkanes and olive oil (Robert et
al., 1989). However, biosurfactant production has been proven to be
quite a challenge in industry. Problems such as low yield and high production
cost of biosurfactants (Lang and Wullbrandt, 1999) are important and cannot
be ignored. It is hoped that these problems can be solved by searching
for more effective biosurfactants and/or higher yield of biosurfactant
production from microorganisms. Therefore, when it comes to the production
of biosurfactants for industrial application, actinomycetes, gram-positive
filamentous bacteria, are of good choice as biosurfactant producers because
of their abundance in soil and their major roles in recycling of material
in nature. Moreover, they have been found to produce many kinds of metabolites,
including antibiotics, pigments, enzymes and biosurfactants (Oskay et
al., 2004; Augustine et al., 2005; Imasda, 2005; Richter et
al., 1998). Until recently, there have been only a limited number
of reports published on biosurfactant-producing actinomycetes. For instance,
Streptomyces tendae Tu 901/8c produces an extracellular hydrophobic
peptide compound, named streptofactin (Richter et al., 1998). This
example highlights the potential of actinomycetes as biosurfactant producers.
The objective of this study was to isolate soil actinomycetes in Chiang
Mai and to screen for extracellular biosurfactants using sesame oil that
is easily available in the area as a sole carbon source.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Selective Isolation of Actinomycetes
Soil samples were collected from various locations in Chiang Mai province,
Northern Thailand in 2005. The samples were air dried at room temperature
for 1 week and pretreated at 55 °C in a hot-air oven for 3 h then
stored at room temperature in plastic bags. One gram of air-dried soil
was serially diluted and 100 μL aliquots of the appropriate dilution
was applied to humic acid-salts-vitamin agar (HV) plates (Hayakawa and
Nonomura, 1987) which the pH was adjusted to 7.0. These plates were supplemented
with 50 μg mL-1 of nalidixic and nystatin and incubated
at 30 ± 2 °C for up to 3 weeks. Actinomycete colonies were
preliminarily selected based on colony morphology and transferred on to
Hickey-Tresner agar (HT) plates (Hickey and Tresner, 1952). Pure isolates
were maintained on HT agar medium at 4 °C. Alternatively, suspension
of mycelia and spores were stored in 15% glycerol at -20 °C for long
Screening for Biosurfactant-Producing Isolates
Seven day-old actinomycetes were inoculated into 6x100 mm test tubes containing
3 mL Kim`s medium (Kim et al., 2000) with 3% sesame oil as carbon
source. The broth cultures were incubated at 30 ± 2oC
on a reciprocal shaker at 120 rpm for 5 days. The culture broth was then
tested for the production of extracellular biosurfactants with the drop-collapse
method (Bodour and Miller-Maier, 1998). The drop-collapse method was performed
in a polystyrene lid of a 96-microwell plate coated with 1.8 μL of
10W-40 Pennzoil® oil, which was spread as a thin coating
over the bottom of the well. The coated wells were allowed to equilibrate
for 24 h at room temperature. A 5 μL of sample was added into the
center of the well and after 1 min, the results were recorded. If the
droplet remained intact, the result was scored as negative. If the droplet
collapsed, the result was scored as positive meaning biosurfactant production
occurred. Distilled water and 10% Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) were used
as negative and positive controls respectively and all the tests were
carried out in triplicate.
The oil-displacement method was used to detect the activity of biosurfactant.
Forty milliliters of distilled water was added to a Petri dish followed
by the addition of 10 μL of crude oil to the surface of the water.
Ten microliters of sample was added onto the center of the oil film. The
diameters of the clear zone on the oil surface were measured and compared
with control using uninoculated medium (Youssef et al., 2004).
The emulsification capacity was determined by adding 2 mL of kerosene
to the same amount of cell-free culture broth, mixed for 2 min on a vortex
mixer and allowed to stand for 24 h. E24 index is defined as percentage
of the height of emulsified layer divided by the total height of the liquid
column (Cooper and Goldenberg, 1987).
Surface Tension Measurement
Surface tension measurement was done by using Kruss tensiometer,
Model K10 (Kruss, Germany) equipped with plate. Samples were cell-free
culture broths. Measurements of surface tension from distilled water were
used as negative controls.
Identification of Isolates
Phenotypic characterization of the selected isolates was based on
cell morphology (Pridham et al., 1958) and classical biochemical
test (Williams et al., 1983). After the preliminary screening,
positive strains were characterized using traditional microbiological
methods such as growth on microbiological media, aerial spore mass color,
substrate mycelium pigmentation and color of any soluble pigments. They
were recorded using the method described by Kelly (1958); these properties
were noted from mature, heavily sporing cultures. The spore chain morphology
was examined with light and scanning electron microscopy (JEAL, JSM-5910,
Japan) of 14-day-old cultures grown on HT plates at 28 °C. Diaminopimelic
acid isomers and sugar from whole-cell extract were analyzed for chemotaxonomic
studies by thin layer chromatography of whole-cell hydrolysates (Becker
et al., 1964; Boone and Pine, 1968).
The biochemical tests used in this study were degradation of casein,
tyrosine, gelatin, starch and aesculin, carbohydrate utilization and lipase
activity (Williams et al., 1983).
16S rRNA Gene Amplification, Sequencing and Phylogenetic Analysis
Cell pellets were obtained from three day-old culture of S71, S72
and S177. Total genomic DNA of each isolate was extracted with the salting
out procedure (Kieser et al., 2000). PCR amplification of 16S rRNA
gene sequence was done in GeneAmp® (PCR System 9700, AB
Applied Biosystem) using primer 27f (5`-AGA,GTT,TGA,TCM,TGG,CTC,AG-3`)
and primer 1525r (5`-AAG,GAG,GTG,WTC,CAR,CC-3`). The PCR amplifications
were done using an initial denaturation step at 95 °C for 5 min, followed
by 35 cycles of 1 min at 95 °C, 1 min at 58 °C and 2 min at 72
°C and a final extension at 72 °C for 10 min and cooled to 4 °C.
Bidirectional sequencing of the PCR product was done with four primers.
These were primer 27f, primer 1525r, primer MG3f (5`-CTA CGG GRS GCA GCA
G -3`) and primer MG5f (AAA CTC AAA GGA ATT GAC GG -3`). The cycle sequencing
was performed by TECH DRAGON LIMITED, Hong Kong.
The probable identity or nearest match of each new sequence was determined
by performing a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) search at the
NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information, Building 38A, 8600
Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894, USA) website (Wheeler et al.,
2001). The almost complete 16S rDNA sequences of each of the test strains
were aligned manually using the PHYDIT program against corresponding sequences
of representatives of appropriate actinomycete reference strains retrieved
from the GenBank (Benson et al., 2004) and the RDPII databases
(Ribosomal Database Project; Maidak et al., 2001). The aligned
sequences were used to generate phylogenetic trees and similarity matrices
using the PHYDIT software. Unrooted phylogenetic trees were inferred by
using the least-squares (Fitch and Margoliash, 1967), maximum-parsimony
(Kluge and Farris, 1969) and neighbour-joining (Saitou and Nei, 1987)
tree-making algorithms. An evolutionary distance matrix was generated
after Jukes and Cantor (1969). The topologies of the resultant trees were
evaluated by bootstrap analyses of the neighbor-joining method based on
1000 resamplings. The phylogenetic analyses, which were carried out using
the TREECON program (Van de Peer and deWachter, 1994), were presented
as rooted dendrograms using the TREECON and TREEVIEW programs.
Nucleotide Sequence Accession Number
The nucleotide sequences of S71, S72 and S177 have been deposited
with GenBank under accession numbers EF392566, EF208617 and EF197893,
Extraction of Biosurfactant
The biosurfactant was extracted from culture after cell removal by
filtration. A mixture of chloroform:methanol (2:1 v/v) was added to the
culture medium, after being vigorously shaken, this was allowed to stand
until phase separation. The extracts were combined and concentrated by
rotary evaporator (Buchi Rotavapor R-200, Switzerland) and then sodium
sulfate anhydrous was added to remove water. The crude extract was obtained
after removal of the solvent and moisture by evaporation and vacuum drying
(Dura-DryTM, FTSYSTEMS, USA), respectively. The crude extract
was purified by column chromatography on a silica gel (Scharlau GE 0030)
(100% hexane -100% EtOAc as eluent). Each fraction was collected and concentrated
and then subjected to TLC analysis. All fractions were tested for biosurfactant
activity using the oil displacement method.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Isolation of and Screening for Biosurfactant Producing Actinomycetes
A total of 229 strains of actinomycetes were isolated from a total
of 25 soil samples. All isolates were initially screened for extracellular
biosurfactant by a drop-collapse method for their ability to produce biosurfactant(s)
in culture broth containing sesame oil as the sole carbon source. This
method is a simple protocol for screening biosurfactant production in
a large number of microorganisms (Youssef et al., 2004). Significant
drop collapsed activity were observed from three isolates, designated
strains S71, S72 and S177. Subsequently, the extracellular biosurfactant
production tested positively when grown in assigned broth medium (pH 7)
at 30 ±2 °C on a reciprocal shaker set at 120 rpm after 5 days
of incubation. Biosurfactant productions of these isolates were confirmed
with the oil displacement method (Youssef et al., 2004).
Characterization of Selected Strains
Morphology and chemotaxonomy of the positive isolates were studied
and the results indicated that these three isolates belonged to the genus
Streptomyces. All three isolates had morphological features and
biochemical characteristics that supported their assignment to the genus
Streptomyces (Table 1, Fig. 1).
Isolates S71 and S72 had identical morphological features, whereas isolate
||Morphological and biochemical characteristics of the three
biosurfactant-producing actinomycetes (S71, S72 and S177)
|+: Positive, utilized, -: Negative, Results of reference
strain search from Williams et al. (1983)
||lectron micrographs of biosurfactant-producing actinomycetes;
Streptomyces sp. S71 (A), S72 (B) and S177 (C)
differed from isolates S71 and S72 in colonial pigment. All three isolates
were highly-branched substrate mycelia with production of aerial hyphae
with straight or spiral spore chains. Results from chemotaxonomic study
showed that all three isolates had LL isomer of diaminopimelic acid (LL-DAP)
in their cell wall. These results corresponded with the work done and
reported by Kieser et al. (2000). Therefore, isolates S71, S72
and S177 were then assigned to the genus Streptomyces.
||Neighbor-joining tree (Saitou and Nei, 1987) based on almost
complete 16S rRNA gene sequences showing relationships between the isolates
S71, S72 and S177 and representatives of the genus Streptomyces.
The asterisks indicate the branches that were also recovered using the least-squares
(Fitch and Margoliash 1967) and maximum-parsimony (Kluge and Farris 1969)
tree-making algorithms. The numbers at the nodes indicate the level of bootstrap
support (%) based on a neighbor joining analysis of 1000 resampled datasets;
only value above 50% are given. The scale bar indicates 0.1 substitutions
per nucleotide position
16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis
Further taxonomic characterization of biosurfactant-producing actinomycetes
was done by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It is evident from 16S rRNA
gene phylogenetic trees that isolates S71, S72 and S177 are members of
the genus Streptomyces (Fig. 2). These data were
in line with the results obtained from chemotaxonomic studies. Isolates
S71 and S177 formed phyletic line that was closely related to S. griseoflavus
JCM4479T sharing 16S rRNA gene similarities with the latter
of 99.7 and 99.8%, values equivalent to 4 and 2 nt differences at 1402
sites. This taxonomic relationship was supported by a 73% bootstrap value.
Similar tree topology was also found in the tree generated with the least-squares
(Fitch and Margoliash, 1967) algorithms. It is obvious that these two
isolates are closely related to S. griseoflavus.
The isolate S72 was recovered near the S. violaceoruber clade, a taxon
underpinned by a 97% bootstrap value. Similar tree topology was also found in
the trees generated with the least-squares (Fitch and Margoliash, 1967) and
maximum parsimony (Kluge and Farris, 1969) algorithms (data not shown).
||Tests of biosurfactant production in cell-free culture broth
by the drop collapse method, oil-displacement method, emulsifying activity
and surface tension measurement
|+: Positive, drop collapsed When larger numbers are
observed in the oil displacement and the emulsifying activity, the
better the production, When smaller numbers are observed in the surface
tension measurement, the results are favorable
The isolate showed its closest relationship with the type strain of S.
fradiae NBRC12215T, the two organisms shared a 16S rRNA gene
similarity of only 98.1%, a value equivalent to 27 nt differences at 1453 sites.
These data suggested that the isolate S72 may represent a novel species within
the genus Streptomyces.
Extraction of Biosurfactant
The emulsification activity (E24) of cell-free culture
broth of the S71, S72 and S177 isolates was 48, 66 and 55%, respectively
and the Surface Tension (ST) values of the cell-free culture medium were
42, 41 and 45 mN m-1, respectively (Table 2).
These results indicated that actinomycetes remain a vital source of microbial
metabolites production. According to the E24 and ST values aforementioned,
isolate S72 was further studied for the biosurfactant production in larger
scale. After the extraction of the biosurfactant produced by isolate S72,
the crude extract was purified by column chromatography and thin layer
chromatography. There are two fractions that were positive for biosurfactant
activity after tested with the oil displacement method. Further analysis
by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Mass Spectrometry
(MS) to determine the structure and molecular weight of the positive fractions
will be carried out.
There are very few reports published on actinomycetes that produce extracellular
biosuractant(s). This study showed that three Streptomyces isolates,
S71, S72 and S177, which were isolated from soils were able to produce
extracellular biosurfactant(s) in the modified Kim`s broth medium with
sesame seed oil as a sole carbon source. They could grow in Kim`s medium
supplemented with crude oil as carbon source . The results from 16S rRNA
gene sequence analysis indicated that S71 and S177 were closely related
to S. griseoflavus and S72 was closely related to S. fradiae.
Richter et al. (1998) reported that S. tendae produced extracellular
biosurfactant called streptofactin which was used by the cells to develop
aerial mycelium and support the erection of aerial hyphae by lowering
the surface tension of water films enclosing the colonies. Additionally,
S. griseoflavus, S. parvus and S. plicatus
isolated from Kuwait Burgan oil field were found to utilize n-hexadecane,
n-octadecane, kerosene and crude oil as carbon and energy sources (Barabas
et al., 2001). These results indicated that actinomycetes are still
important source of microbial metabolites production. It was found that
five different actinomycetes potentially used as bioremediation agents
in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation produced biosurfactants
when grown in various substrates (Pizzul et al., 2006). Gordonia
strains (M22, BS25 and BS29) produced two classes of surface-active compounds
when using aliphatic hydrocarbons as carbon and energy sources (Franzetti
et al., 2008). However, to obtain more diverse potential and novel
actinomycetes, it is recommended that a wider rang of soil samples be
used for biosurfactant activity.
Isolates S71, S72 and S177 produced extracellular biosurfactant
which reduced surface tension. They were isolated from soil samples in
Chiang Mai, Thailand. These isolates are then characterized by using combined
analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence, morphological and biochemical data
and identified to the genus Streptomyces. Phylogenetic analysis
using 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that S71 and S177 were closely related
to S. griseoflavus (AY999772) sharing 99% 16S rRNA gene similarities,
whereas S72 was closely related to the S. fradiae that shared
a 16S rRNA gene similarity of only 98% and might be novel species. Further
study using type strain for comparison and the structure elucidation of
purified biosurfactant will be conducted.
This research was financially supported by the National Research
Council of Thailand (NRCT), the Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University,
Chiang Mai Thailand and Rangsit University, Pathumthani, Thailand.
Augustine, S.K., S.P. Bhavsar and B.P. Kapadnis, 2005. A non-polyene antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces albidoflavus PU 23. J. Biosci., 30: 201-211.
Direct Link |
Barabas, G., G. Vargha, I.M. Szabo, A. Penyige and S. Damjanovich et al., 2001. n-alkane uptake and utilization by Streptomyces strains. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 79: 269-276.
Direct Link |
Becker, B., M.P. Lechevalier, R.E. Gordon and H.A. Lechevalier, 1964. Rapid differentiation between Nocardia and Streptomyces by paper chromatography of whole-cell hydrolysates. Applied Microbiol., 12: 421-423.
Benson, D.A., I. Karsch-Mizrachi, D.J. Lipman, J. Ostell and D.L. Wheeler, 2004. GenBank: Update. Nucleic Acids Res., 32: D23-26.
Direct Link |
Bodour, A.A. and R.M. Miller-Maier, 1998. Application of a modified drop-collapse technique for surfactant quantitation and screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. J. Microbiol. Methods, 32: 273-280.
Boone, C.J. and L. Pine, 1968. Rapid method for characterization of actinomycetes by cell wall composition. Applied Microbiol., 16: 279-284.
Direct Link |
Cooper, D.G. and B.G. Goldenberg, 1987. Surface-active agents from two Bacillus species. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 53: 224-229.
Direct Link |
Desai, J.D. and I.M. Banat, 1997. Microbial production of surfactants and their and their commercial potential. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev., 61: 47-64.
PubMed | Direct Link |
Duvnlak, Z., D.G. Cooper and N. Kosaric, 1982. Production of surfactant by Arthrobacter paraffineus ATCC 19558. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 24: 165-175.
Fitch, W.M. and E. Margoliash, 2001. Construction of phylogenetic trees, a method based on mutation distances as estimated from cytochrome c sequences is of general applicability. Science, 155: 279-284.
Direct Link |
Franzetti, A., G. Bestetti, P. Caredda, P.L. Colla and E. Tamburini, 2008. Surface-active compounds and their role in the access to hydrocarbons in Gordonia strains. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 63: 238-248.
Direct Link |
Hayakawa, M. and H. Nonomura, 1987. Humic acid-vitamin agar, a new medium for selective isolation of soil actinomycetes. J. Ferment. Technol., 65: 501-509.
Hickey, R.T. and H.D. Tresner, 1952. A cobalt-containing medium for sporulation of Streptomyces species. J. Bacteriol., 64: 891-892.
Imada, C., 2005. Enzyme inhibitors and other bioactive compounds from marine actinomycetes. Antonie Van Leewenhoek, 87: 59-63.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Jukes, T.H. and C.R. Cantor, 1969. Evolution of Protein Molecules. In: Mammalian Protein Metabolism, Munro, H.N. (Ed.). Academic Press, New York, pp: 21-132.
Kelly, K.L., 1958. Centroid notations for the revised ISCC-NBS color name blocks. J. Res. Nat. Bureau Standards USA., 61: 472-472.
Kieser, T., M.J. Bibb, M.J. Buttner, K.F. Chater and D.A. Hopwood, 2000. Preparation and Analysis of Genomic and Plasmid DNA. In: Practical Streptomyces Genetics, Kieser T., M.J. Bibb, M.J. Buttner, K.F. Chater and D.A. Hopwood, (Eds.). John Innes Foundation, Crowes, Norwich, pp: 162-170.
Kim, S.H., E.J. Lim, S.O. Lee, J.D. Lee and T.H. Lee, 2000. Purification and characterization of biosurfactants from Nocardia sp. L-417. Biotechnol. Applied Biochem., 31: 249-253.
PubMed | Direct Link |
Kluge, A.G. and F.G. Farris, 1969. Quantitative phyletics and the evolution of anurans. Syst. Zool., 18: 1-32.
Direct Link |
Lang, S. and D. Wullbrandt, 1999. Rhamnose lipids-biosynthesis, microbial production and application potential. Applied Microbiol. Biotechnol., 51: 22-32.
CrossRef | PubMed |
Lin, S.C., 1996. Biosurfactants: Recent advances. J. Chem. Tech. Biotechnol., 66: 109-120.
Maidak, B.L., J.L. Cole, T.G. Lilbum, C.T. Jr. Parker and P.R. Saxman et al., 2001. The RDP-II (Ribosomal Database Project). Nucleic Acids Res., 29: 173-174.
Direct Link |
Maier, R.M., 2003. Biosurfactants: Evolution and diversity in bacteria. Adv. Applied Microbiol., 52: 102-121.
Direct Link |
Makkar, R.S. and S.S. Cameotra, 1997. Utilization of molasses for biosurfactant production by two Bacillus strains at thermophilic conditions. J. Am. Org. Chem. Soc., 7: 887-889.
Direct Link |
Oskay, M., U.A. Tamer and C. Azer, 2004. Antibacterial activity of some actinomycetes isolated from farming soils of Turkey. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 3: 441-446.
Pizzul, L., M.P. Castillo and J. Stenstrom, 2006. Characterization of selected actinomycetes degrading polyaromatic hydrocarbons in liquid culture and spiked soil. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 22: 745-752.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Pridham, T.G., C.W. Hesseltine and R.G. Benedict, 1958. A guide for the classification of streptomycetes according to selected groups. Placement of strains in morphological sections. Applied Microbiol., 6: 52-79.
Richter, M., J.M. Willey, R. Submuth, G. Jung and H.P. Fiedler, 1998. Streptofactin, a novel biosurfactant with aerial mycelium inducing activity from Streptomyces tendae Tu 901/8c. FEMS. Microbiol. Lett., 163: 165-171.
Robert, M., M.E. Mercade, M.P. Bosch, J.L. Parra, M.J. Espuny, M.A. Manresa and J. Guinea, 1989. Effect of the carbon source on biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 44T. Biotechnol. Lett., 11: 871-874.
Saitou, N. and M. Nei, 1987. The neighbour-joining method: A new method for constructing phylogenetic trees. Mol. Biol. Evol., 4: 406-425.
PubMed | Direct Link |
Van de Peer, Y. and R. de Wachter, 1994. TREECON for Windows: A software package for the construction and drawing of evolutionary trees for the Microsoft Windows environment. Comput. Applied Biol. Sci., 10: 569-570.
Wheeler, D.L., D.M. Church, A.E. Lash, D.D. Leipe and T.L. Madden et al., 2001. Database resources of the national center for biotechnology information. Nucleic Acids Res., 29: 11-16.
Direct Link |
Williams, S.T., M. Goodfellow, G. Alderson, E.M.H. Wellington, P.H.A. Sneath and M.J. Sackin, 1983. Numerical classification of Streptomyces and related genera. J. Gen. Microbiol., 129: 1743-1813.
Youssef, N.H., K.E. Duncan, D.D. Nagle, K.H. Savage, R.M. Knapp and M.J. McInerney, 2004. Comparison of methods to detect biosurfactant production by diverse microorganisms. J. Microbiol. Methods, 56: 339-347.
Direct Link |