Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Abstract
Fulltext PDF
References
Research Article
 
Treatment with Methanol Extract of Ficus capensis Stem Bark Protects Against Changes in Biomarker Levels of Carbontetrachloride-induced Cardiotoxicity of Rats



Ugochi Olivia Njoku, Martins Obinna Ogugofor and Okwesili Fred Chiletugo Nwodo
 
ABSTRACT
Background and Objective: Ficus capensis is one of the plants used in folklore medicine in Nigeria, for the treatment of various disease conditions and promotion of vascular health. This study was undertaken to investigate its cardioprotective potential against carbontetrachloride (CCl4)-induced myocardial necrosis in rats. Materials and Methods:Albino rats were divided into four main groups: normal control, CCl4 control, 1.2 mg kg–1 b.wt., aspirin pre-treated and Ficus capensis extract pre-treated groups. Extract was administered orally at doses of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg kg–1 b.wt., for 7 days to evaluate their effect on CCl4-induced cardiotoxicity. Aspirin was used as standard drug. On day 7, cardiotoxicity was induced in animals of CCl4 control, aspirin and extract pre-treatment groups. Histopathological examination was performed to evaluate the basic action of extract and statistical differences were assessed using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test with SPSS version 22.0. Results: CCl4 intoxication in CCl4 treated rats caused significant (p<0.05) increases in serum contents of cardiac biomarker enzymes and raise in lipid peroxidation whereas significant (p<0.05) decreases in cardiac enzymatic antioxidant and glutathione reductase contents were observed when compared to normal control. Pre-treatment with Ficus capensis stem bark extract expressed cardioprotective ability against CCl4-induced oxidative changes in myocardium by significantly (p<0.05) altering levels of cardiac biomarker enzymes towards normal, enhancing the activity of suppressed antioxidant enzymes and lessening lipid peroxidation level. Histopathological examination of cardiac tissues, following extract pre-treatment showed correlation with serological studies. Conclusion: Based on these findings, Ficus capensis stem bark is potent against CCl4-induced oxidative stress in heart due to its antioxidant and cell stabilization property.
Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Ugochi Olivia Njoku, Martins Obinna Ogugofor and Okwesili Fred Chiletugo Nwodo, 2017. Treatment with Methanol Extract of Ficus capensis Stem Bark Protects Against Changes in Biomarker Levels of Carbontetrachloride-induced Cardiotoxicity of Rats. Journal of Applied Sciences, 17: 407-414.

DOI: 10.3923/jas.2017.407.414

URL: http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jas.2017.407.414
 
Received: February 02, 2017; Accepted: June 24, 2017; Published: July 15, 2017

INTRODUCTION

Cardiovascular related diseases are one of the most common diseases affecting a great number of people and have been reported to be one of the leading causes of death for both men and women1. The development of cardiovascular disease normally involves a number of cell types, injuries, loss of cardiac membrane integrity and dysfunction of vascular endothelium1. The development of myocardial ischemia and infarction is a dynamic process with the widespread occurrence of coronary artherosclerosis and involvement of oxidative stress in humans2. The principle mechanisms of cardiotoxicity are increased oxidative stress, evident from increased levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) like superoxide anion, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (LPO)3. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been a well known model chemical substance used in inducing tissue toxicity by production of free radicals in many tissues such as liver, kidney, heart, lung, testis, blood and brain4. The free radicals generated by CCl4 biotransformation initiate lipid peroxidation of tissues5,6. The CCl4 intake is followed by transformation in the liver by cytochrome P450 leading to the formation of trichloromethyl free radical (CCl3or CCl300*) which could modify molecular probably lipids, leading to peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the cell membrane7.

However, establishing a balance between natural antioxidants and free radicals is very essential to forestall oxidative damage by toxic agents8.

Ficus capensis is one of the numerous plants used in folklore medicine in Nigeria, locally called "Akokoro" (Igbo), "Uwaryara" (Hausa), "Opoto" (Yoruba), "Rima bichehi" (Fulani) and "Obada" (Edo). It belongs to the family Moraceae and has been considered an underutilized plant. It is commonly used as vegetable in foods with a considerable blood boosting effect9 and possesses anti-sickling effect of red blood cells10. The antioxidant effect of Ficus capensis has been reported11. Other pharmacological effects of Ficus capensis include abortfacient12; anti-diarrhoea13; immune-stimulatory and pro-fertility in treating azoospermia14. The effect of Ficus capensis stem bark extract on myocardial antioxidant defense system in CCl4- induced myocardial necrosis has not yet being studied. Therefore, the present study was conducted to examine the beneficial effects of Ficus capensis stem bark extract on heart tissue in CCl4-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Drugs and chemicals: All drugs and chemicals used were of analytical grade.

Collection of stem bark of Ficus capensis: Fresh stem barks of Ficus capensis collected from Ozom Mgbagbu-Owa in Ezeagu Local Government of Enugu State were identified by Mr. Alfred Ozioko of Bioresources Development and Conservation Programme (BDCP), Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Preparation of plant material: The stem barks were washed with distilled water, air-dried at room temperature and pulverized into powder for extraction. The powder (500 g) was extracted in 1.5 L of methanol and allowed to stand for 48 h at room temperature. The mixture was filtered with Whatman No. 4 filter paper and filtrate, concentrated using rotary evaporator to get a semi solid extract.

Phytochemical screening: The screening for some chemical constituents of the plant stem bark was carried out as described by Harborne15 and Trease and Evans16. Quantitative analysis was carried out by method described by Harborne17 and Soni and Sosa18.

Assessment of cardioprotective and antioxidant properties
Animals: Twenty eight adult male albino rats, weighing 120-200 g were obtained from the animal house of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Animals were kept in clean aluminum cages and placed in a well-ventilated house under standard laboratory condition of temperature at 25°2°C, relative humidity of 55°10% and light: dark cycle of 12 h photoperiod. All rats were allowed free access to rat pellet and water before and throughout the experiment. The rats were handled according to the guidelines of the National Institute of Health on the case and use of laboratory animals.

Treatment protocols: Twenty eight rats were randomly divided into seven main experimental groups (A-G), consisting of four animals each. After 1 week of acclimatization, 1.2 mg kg–1 b.wt., of aspirin and different doses of the extracts were orally administered to groups C and D-G, respectively while groups A and B received distilled water for 7 consecutive days.

Inducement of cardiotoxicity: Cardiotoxicity was induced according to the method described by Agbafor et al.19. Briefly, on the 7th day, 2 h after the extract or aspirin administration, groups B-G were treated with a single dose of 2.5 mL kg–1 b.wt., of CCl4 intraperitoneally while group A received only distilled water.

Summary of groups and treatment:

Group A: Distilled water
Group B: 2.5 mL kg–1 b.wt., CCl4 only
Group C: 1.2 mg kg–1 b.wt., aspirin+2.5 mL kg–1 b.wt., CCl4
Group D: 100 mg kg–1 b.wt., extract+2.5 mL kg–1 b.wt., CCl4
Group E: 200 mg kg–1 b.wt., extract+2.5 mL kg–1 b.wt., CCl4
Group F: 300 mg kg–1 b.wt., extract+2.5 mL kg–1 b.wt., CCl4
Group G: 400 mg kg–1 b.wt., extract+2.5 mL kg–1 b.wt., CCl4

Collection of blood sample from experimental animals: Blood samples were collected from the experimental animals using the method described by Agbafor et al.19. Briefly, blood samples were collected from the animals following an overnight fast through cardiac puncture under mild anaesthesia using chloroform. The samples were put into specimen bottles without anticoagulant. Heart was also quickly excised, perfused with cold normal saline and homogenized in 0.25 M sucrose in phosphate buffer (0.2 M, pH 7.4).

Cardioprotective property: Cardioprotective effect of Ficus capensis stem bark extract was studied by determining the serum levels of Creatine Kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate transaminase (AST). The methods as contained in the respective kits (Randox kits, UK) of the parameters were adopted.

Preparation of heart homogenate: Heart tissues were homogenized in KCl (10 nM) phosphate buffer (1.15 %) with ethylene diamine tetracetic acid (EDTA, pH 7.4) and centrifuged at 12000 rpm for 20 min. Aliquot was used for biochemical estimation.

Antioxidant activity: This was evaluated in the heart homogenate by estimating the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), a stable product of lipid peroxidation according to the method described by Wallin et al.20. Myocardial activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Reductase (GR) were determined by the method of Fridovich21, Aebi22 and Goldberg and Spooner23, respectively.

Determination of the nutrient constituents of the extract: The methods of AOAC24 and Pearson25 were used to determine the presence of vitamins and minerals, respectively.

Tissue preparation: Tissue sections of the heart from all the experimental groups were collected for histopathological examination. The fixed specimens were then trimmed, washed and dehydrated in ascending grades of alcohol (60, 70, 80 and 90%). The specimens were cleared in xylene, embedded in paraffin, sectioned at 4-6 μ thickness and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E stain) then examined under Motic™ 9.0 megapixels microscope camera (Motic Incorporation Limited, Hong Kong) at X400 magnifications26.

Data analysis: Values were expressed as mean±standard error mean (SD) from four animals. Statistical differences were evaluated using a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test to detect significant differences among the mean likewise the interactions between the variables using SPSS 15.0 version. Differences were considered statistically significant at p<0.0527.

RESULTS

Phytochemical constituents of the extract: The preliminary phytochemical screening of methanol extract of Ficus capensis stem bark revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids in varied proportions (Table 1).

Nutrient compositions of Ficus capensis stem bark extract:The results of the nutrient concentration in Ficus capensis stem bark are presented in Table 2. The macroelements analyzed were calcium and magnesium.

Table 1: Phytochemical constituents present in the extract
n: Mean±SD of triplicate determination

Table 2: Nutrients available in the extract
n: Mean±SD of triplicate determination

The concentration of magnesium was higher in the stem bark than calcium. This study reports the concentrations of three microelements; vitamins (A, B1, B6, B9, C and E), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn). The result showed highest concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidant vitamins (C and E) in the stem bark sample. Concentration of antioxidant metal ion Zn was recorded to be higher than Fe in the stem bark sample.

Effects of Ficus capensis stem bark extract on cardiac function tests of rats: The cardio protective activity of Ficus capensis stem bark extract in CCl4-induced cardiotoxicity is shown in Table 3. Intraperitoneal administration of CCl4 produced significant (p<0.05) increases in serum levels of CK, LDH and AST when compared to normal control. Pre-treatment with graded doses of Ficus capensis stem bark extract (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg kg–1) before CCl4 intraperitoneal administration, significantly (p<0.05) reduced serum concentrations of CK, LDH and AST as doses increased from 100-400 mg kg–1 when compared to CCl4 toxic group. Similarly, pre-treatment with 1.2 mg kg–1 b.wt., aspirin also significantly (p<0.05) lessened the serum levels of these cardiac biomarker enzymes relative to CCl4 control group. At highest tested dose of 400 mg kg–1 b.wt., extract, reduction in levels of CK, LDH and AST were significantly (p<0.05) greater when compared to 1.2 mg kg–1 b.wt., aspirin.

Effect of Ficus capensis stem bark extract on cardiac enzymatic antioxidant levels: The antioxidant stimulating activity of Ficus capensis stem bark extract is presented in Table 4. The administration of CCl4 in rats resulted in significant (p<0.05) decreases in levels of cardiac CAT, SOD and GR and elevation in serum level of MDA when compared to normal control. Rats pre-treated with 1.2 mg kg–1 aspirin and Ficus capensis stem bark extract at doses of 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg kg–1 b.wt., showed significant (p<0.05) raise in levels of CAT, SOD and GR when compared with rats that received CCl4 only. However, there was dose dependent suppression of elevated serum levels of MDA (caused by CCl4) in rats pre-treated with different doses of extract, as well as in aspirin pre-treated groups with a significance of p<0.05 when compared to CCl4 toxic group. At a dose of 400 mg kg–1 b.wt., the inhibitory effect of Ficus capensis stem bark extract on lipid peroxidation (measured by MDA serum level) was significant (p<0.05) when compared to 1.2 mg kg–1 b.wt., aspirin.

Histopathological evaluation of heart tissues: Histopathological examination of heart tissues showing degree of necrosis are shown in Fig. 1. Normal group hearts, showed normal elongated cardiomyocytes in series, with single oval to elongated pale basophilic nuclei. Group challenged with CCl4 only, showed multifocal areas of hyaline degeneration and severe myocardial necrosis with leucocytic cellular infiltration compared to the normal group. In a dose dependent manner, extract pretreated groups (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg kg–1) showed progressive normal histo-architecture of myofibrillar striations without any significant pathological changes, when compared to the group treated with CCl4 only.

Table 3: Serum Levels of CK, LDH and AST of the animals after treatment
Values are expressed in Mean±SD, n = 4. Values in the same column having different superscripts differ significantly (p<0.05). AST: Aspartate transaminase, CK: Creatine kinase, LDH: Lactate dehydrogenase

Table 4: Heart levels of MDA, CAT, SOD and GR of the animals
Values are Mean±SD, n = 4. Values in the same column having different superscripts differ significantly (p<0.05), CAT: Catalase, GR: Glutathione reductase, MDA: Malondialdehyde, SOD: Superoxide dismutase

Fig. 1(a-g):
Essentially similar to normal histoarchitectural structure of the heart presented in pre-treatment groups, A: Normal control, B: CCl4 only, C: 1.2 mg kg–1 b.wt., aspirin+CCl4, D: 100 mg kg–1 b.wt., extract+CCl4, E: 200 mg kg–1 b.wt., extract +CCl4, F: 300 mg kg–1 b.wt., extract+CCl4, G: 400 mg kg–1 b.wt., extract

Groups treated with 400 mg kg–1 b.wt., extract and 1.2 mg kg–1 b.wt., aspirin presented features essentially similar to normal control.

DISCUSSION

This study investigated the protective effect of methanol extract of Ficus capensis stem bark in CCl4-induced cardiotoxic rats. The phytochemistry of methanol extract of Ficus capensis stem bark revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides and terpenoids which complements with previous studies28.

Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is known to induce tissue toxicity and also initiate lipid peroxidation by free radicals it generates4- 6. Since cardiac tissue has high affinity for CCl4 due to Cytochrome P450, oxidative damage to lipids and proteins of heart tissues probably occurred because of CCl4 intoxication29. Damage to myocardial cells may cause decreases in the concentrations or activities of CK, AST and LDH in the heart, due to leakage of these enzymes into the extracellular fluid3. This leakage can be prevented by maintaining the membrane integrity of myocardium30.

In the present study, administration of CCl4 produced significant (p<0.05) increases of CK, AST and LDH levels in serum when compared to normal control, indicating possible leakage of these enzymes into the extracellular fluid due to rupture or damage of the myocardial cells containing these enzymes. Pretreatment with Ficus capensis stem bark extract (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg kg–1 b.wt.) significantly (p<0.05) prevented increases in serum levels of CK, AST and LDH caused by CCl4 toxicity in a dose related manner. Apparently, Ficus capensis stem bark extract protected the cell membrane from rupture or damage, thereby, inhibiting the efflux of the cardiac enzymes from mitochondria into the extracellular fluid. This suggested cardio protective effect of Ficus capensis stem bark extract on membrane integrity of myocardial cells. Possibly, the bioactive compounds in Ficus capensis stem bark extract interfered with Cyt P450 or chelated by-products of CCl4 metabolism, intrinsically scavenging cardiotoxic free radicals reaction. Cardiac glycosides improve cardiac output and reduce distention of the heart31, while vitamins B6 and B9 have been reported to lower the risk of developing cardiovascular disease32. The presence of cardiac glycosides, vitamins B1, B6 and B9 in Ficus capensis stem bark extract explains cardio protective effect of Ficus capensis stem bark extract. Presence of these micronutrients in the extract was similar to the result obtained by Papp et al.32. Lipid peroxidation is enhanced during ischemia due to decreased antioxidant defence mechanism as reported by Suresh et al.33 and MDA, its biomarker in serum, indicates the amount of membrane damaged by reactive oxygen species3. The inhibition of free radical generation is important in providing protection against myocardial infarction7. The scavenging effect on free radicals by various constituents of plants may be due to phenolic acids and flavonoids34. Vitamins as terpenoids, act as regulators of metabolism and play a protective role as antioxidants35, same as tannins19. Iron and zinc are cofactors needed for synthesis and proper functioning of CAT and SOD36.

The significant (p<0.05) increases in MDA concentration of heart tissues presented by CCl4 treated groups when compared to normal, indicate the extent of peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the cardiac cell membrane and hence, reflects the amount of membranes damaged by free radicals. This also buttresses the disruption of the integrity of the cardiac cell membrane observed earlier in this study. Pre-treatment with different doses of Ficus capensis stem bark extract significantly (p<0.05) lowered the CCl4-induced increases of serum levels of MDA compared to toxic group. This reduction in lipid peroxidation shows a decrease in the amount of membrane damage by free radicals. This may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids present in the stem bark extract of Ficus capensis, which may account for the expressed significant (p<0.05) cardio protective effect of the extract when compared with aspirin (1.2 mg kg–1).

Heart tissue is particularly susceptible to free radical damage because it contains low levels of detoxifying enzymes; SOD, CAT and GSH which play important role in prevention of cell injury induced by free radicals3.

The SOD, CAT and GSH levels were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the group of animals treated with CCl4 only, when compared to the normal. This may be due to overwhelming of the antioxidant defense system by CCl4 metabolites thus predisposing the cardiac tissue to increased free radical damage. Pretreatment with different doses of extract prior to CCl4 administration significantly (p<0.05) reversed the CCl4-induced decrease in activities of these antioxidant enzymes when compared to toxic group, except for glutathione reductase whose increase in activity was non significant at (p>0.05) at a dose of 100 mg kg–1 b.wt. Significant (p<0.05) increases in activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes caused by aspirin (1.2 mg kg–1) and extract suggest protective action on antioxidant defense system. This may be attributed to the antioxidant properties of flavonoids, saponins and phenols present in the extract. Thus, suggesting antioxidant activity of Ficus capensis stem bark extract. The presence of non-enzymatic antioxidants, vitamins C and E, in Ficus capensis stem bark extract may have complemented the activities of these enzymatic antioxidants. Further, the cofactors; Fe, Mg and Zn in the extract, needed for the synthesis and proper functioning of SOD and CAT, may have supported antioxidant potential of Ficus capensis stem bark extract.

Histological perturbation could be attributed to a decline in oxygen supply with paramount rise in wall-stress2. The ability of extract to show dose dependent reversal of myofibrillar necrosis towards normal histo-architectural structure of the heart, characterized by elongated cardiomyocytes in series with single oval to elongated pale basophilic nuclei, may indicate membrane stabilization and cytoprotective properties of Ficus capensis stem bark extract. Hence, might be comparatively safe to cardiomyocytes.

CONCLUSION

Ficus capensis stem bark methanol extract has shown significant protective effects against CCl4-induced cardiotoxicity, possibly by its free radical scavenging mechanism and membrane stabilization property. This may be attributed to antioxidant property of the identified phytoconstituents in the extract. Consequently, Ficus capensis stem bark extract may be beneficial therapeutic agent in treatment and management of cardiac dysfunction. However, further experimentation is needed, using other cardiotoxicity models, to explore the exact mechanism of cardioprotection by Ficus capensis stem bark extract. Isolation and characterization of the exact compounds responsible for the observed pharmacological effects are under investigation.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTS

This study is a first attempt in the evaluation of Ficus capensis stem bark extract on myocardial antioxidant defense system and histopathology in carbontetrachloride-induced cardiotoxicity in an in vivo animal model. The findings highlight that Ficus capensis stem bark extract possibly possesses cardioprotective properties and may be a beneficial therapeutic agent in cardiac dysfunction due to its antioxidant and membrane stabilization activities. This research finding was able to further support the growing interest in the employment of natural antioxidants as a protective strategy against cardiovascular related diseases especially in the rural communities in Nigeria, where orthodox medicine are unaccessible.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors are grateful to Mr. E.C. Mbaoji, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, University of Nigeria for his technical assistance.

REFERENCES
AOAC., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 14th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Arlington, VA., USA., pp: 503-515.

Adewole, S., A. Salako, O. Doherty and T. Naicker, 2007. Effect of melatonin on carbon tetrachloride-induced kidney injury in Wistar rats. Afr. J. Biomed. Res., 10: 34-41.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Aebi, H.E., 1983. Catalase. In: Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, Bergmeyer, H.U., J. Bergmeyer and M. Grassl (Ed.). 3rd Edn., Verlag Chemie, Weinhem, pp: 273-286.

Agbafor, K.N., C. Ezeali, E.I. Akubugwo, I.K. Obiudu and A.J. Uraku et al., 2015. Cardioprotective effect of leaf and root extracts of Newbouldia laevis against carbon tetrachloride induced-cardiotoxicity in albino rats. Eur. J. Med. Plants, 9: 1-7.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Al-Sowayan, N.S. and N.H. Mahmoud, 2014. The protective effect of grape seed extract on cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin drug in male rats. Adv. Biosci. Biotechnol., 5: 1078-1089.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Boumerfeg, S., A. Baghiani, D. Messaoudi, S. Khennouf and L. Arrar, 2009. Antioxidant properties and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of Tamus communis L. root extracts. Phytother. Res., 23: 283-288.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Daikwo, O.A., J.A. Tende, S.M. Okey, E.D. Eze and A.S. Isa, 2012. The effect of aqueous extract of leaf of Ficus capensis Thunb (Moraceae) on in vivo leukocyte mobilization in wistar rats. Br. J. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 3: 110-114.
Direct Link  |  

Denwick, P.M., 2002. Natural Products: A Biosynthetic Approach. 2nd Edn., John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., England, pp: 241-243.

Drury, R.A.B., E.A. Wallington and R. Cameron, 1967. Carleton's Histological Technique. 4th Edn., Oxford University Press, New York, USA., pp: 279-280.

Fridovich, I., 1989. Superoxide dismutases. An adaptation to a paramagnetic gas. J. Biol. Chem., 264: 7761-7764.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Gelfand, M., S. Mavi, R.B. Drummond and B. Ndemera, 1985. The Traditional Medicinal Practitioner in Zimbabwe. Mambo Press, Gweru, Zimbabwe, ISBN: 9780869223505, Pages: 411.

Goldberg, D.M. and R.J. Spooner, 1983. Assay of Glutathione Reductase. In: Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, Bergmeyen, H.V. (Ed.). 3rd Edn. Vch Publication, USA., ISBN-13: 978-0895732323, pp: 258-265.

Harborne, J.B., 1973. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 3rd Edn., Chapman and Hall, London, Pages: 279.

Harborne, J.B., 1998. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Technique of Plant Analysis. 3rd Edn., Springer, London, ISBN: 9780412572708, Pages: 271.

Jimoh, F.O., S.A. Babalola and M.T. Yakubu, 2009. Assessment of the antioxidant potential of Cnidoscolous chayamansa. Pharm. Biol., 47: 903-909.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Khan, R.A., M.R. Khan and S. Sahreen, 2012. Protective effects of Sonchus asper against KBrO3 induced lipid peroxidation in rats. Lipids Health Dis., Vol. 11. 10.1186/1472-6882-12-204

Mahajan, B.K., 1997. Significance of Difference in Means. In: Methods in Biostatistics for Medical and Research Workers, Mahajan, B.K. (Ed.). 6th Edn., JAYPEE Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, pp: 130-155.

Ojha, S., J. Bhatia, S. Arora, M. Golechha, S. Kumari and D.S. Arya, 2011. Cardioprotective effects of Commiphora mukul against isoprenaline-induced cardiotoxicity: A biochemical and histopathological evaluation. J. Environ. Biol., 32: 731-738.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Otitoju, G.T.O., J.U. Nwamarah, O. Otitoju, E.C. Odoh and L.U. Iyeghe, 2014. Phytochemical composition of some underutilsed green leafy vegetables in nsukka urban Lga of Enugu State. J. Biodiversity Environ. Sci., 4: 208-217.
Direct Link  |  

Owolabi, O.J., Z.A. Nworgu, A. Falodun, B.A. Ayinde and C.N. Nwako, 2009. Evaluation of tocolytic activity of ethanol extract of the stem bark of Ficus capensis Thunb. (Moraceae). Acta Pol. Pharm., 66: 293-296.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Ozturk, F., M. Ucar, I.C. Ozturk, N. Vardi and K. Batcioglu, 2003. Carbon tetrachloride-induced nephrotoxicity and protective effect of betaine in Sprague-Dawley rats. Urology, 62: 353-356.
Direct Link  |  

Papp, L.V., J. Lu, A. Holmgren and K.K. Khanna, 2007. From selenium to selenoproteins: Synthesis, identity and their role in human health. Antioxidant Redox Signaling, 9: 775-806.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Pearson, D., 1976. The Chemical Analysis of Foods. 17th Edn., Churchill Livingstone, London, pp: 3-4.

Rai, S.S., B. Somashekar and K.P.S. Gowda, 2015. Cardioprotective effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Ipomoea batatas on doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res., 8: 444-450.
Direct Link  |  

Ramde-Tiendrebeogo, A., A. Tibiri, A. Hilou, M. Lompo, H. Millogo-Kone, O.G. Nacoulma and I.P. Guissou, 2012. Antioxidative and antibacterial activities of phenolic compounds from Ficus sur Forssk. and Ficus sycomorus L. (Moraceae): Potential for sickle cell disease treatment in Burkina Faso. Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci., 6: 328-336.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Sahreen, S., M.R. Khan, R.A. Khan and H.M. Alkreathy, 2014. Cardioprotective role of leaves extracts of Carissa opaca against CCl4 induced toxicity in rats. BMC Res. Notes, Vol. 7. 10.1186/1756-0500-7-224

Saravanan, G., P. Ponmurugan, M. Sathiyavathi, S. Vadivukkarasi and S. Sengottuvelu, 2013. Cardioprotective activity of amaranthus viridis linn: Effect on serum marker enzymes, cardiac troponin and antioxidant system in experimental myocardial infarcted rats. Int. J. Cardiol., 165: 494-498.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Soetan, K.O., 2008. Pharmacological and other beneficial effects of antinutritional factors in plants-A review. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 7: 4713-4721.
Direct Link  |  

Soni, A. and S. Sosa, 2013. Phytochemical analysis and free radical scavenging potential of herbal and medicinal plant extracts. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem., 2: 22-29.
Direct Link  |  

Suresh, B., J.K. Shetty and M. Prakash, 2010. Cardiac enzymes, total thiols and lipid peroxidation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. J. Clin. Diagnostic Res., 4: 3425-3429.
Direct Link  |  

Trease, G.E. and W.C. Evans, 2002. Pharmacognosy. 15th Edn., Saunders Publishers, London, UK., ISBN: 8131200876, pp: 2, 42-44, 221-229, 246-249, 304-306, 331-332, 391-393.

Turkdogan, M.K., Z. Agaoglu, Z. Yener, R. Sekeroglu, H.A. Akkan and M.E. Avci, 2001. The role of antioxidant vitamins (C and E), selenium and Nigella sativa in the prevention of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in rabbits: New hopes. Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr., 108: 71-73.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Umeokoli, B.O., F.A. Onyegbule, T.H. Gugu and S.O. Igboeme, 2013. Evaluation of the erythropoietic and anti-sickling properties of Ficus capensis leaf extract in the treatment of anaemia. Planta Med. 10.1055/s-0033-1352048

Upur, H., N. Amat, B. Blazekovi, A. Talip, 2009. Protective effect of Cichorium glandulosum root extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced and galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Food Chem. Toxicol., 47: 2022-2030.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Uzoekwe, N.M. and J.J. Mohammed, 2015. Phytochemical, proximate and mineral contents of leaves and back of Ficus capensis. J. Applied Sci. Environ. Manage., 19: 633-637.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Wallin, B., B. Rosengren, H.G. Shertzer and G. Camejo, 1993. Lipoprotein oxidation and measurement of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances formation in a single microtiter plate: Its use for evaluation of antioxidants. Anal. Biochem., 208: 10-15.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2017 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved
Fulltext PDF References Abstract