Dynamic Rheological Properties of Chickpea and Wheat Flour Doughs
Abdelrahman R. Ahmed
Using of chickpea flour to improve the nutritional value of bread has received considerable interest not only because of its high protein content but also because of its high lysine content compared to wheat flour. The aim of this study was to test the effects of chickpea flour supplementation on the dynamic rheological properties of dough. The chickpea flour was used to replace 10, 20, 30 and 100% of wheat flour. Oscillation and creep shear tests were applied to test the effects of chickpea flour supplementation on the dynamic rheological properties of dough. The amplitude sweep measurement results showed that a linear viscoelastic behaviour of module at the range of 10-4 ≤γ≤ 103. Oscillation measurements results cleared that the storage modulus (G΄) is greater than the loss modulus (G΄΄) and the measurement curves of module run nearly parallel in frequency sweep. All doughs had a distinctive solid state characteristics (dispersion structure) not gel-like structure. Increase in the share of chickpea flour additions caused the (G΄) and (G΄΄) curves to shift towards higher values compared to the wheat flour dough. While the tan δ curve tended to shift towards lower values. The creep test showed that increase of the chickpea flour addition to the dough system (increasing of solid state properties) lead to decrease the maximum deformation, elastic recovery (from 2.67 to 1.60), increase of zero shear viscosity and shear modulus. So, wheat flour can carry up to 30% (w/w) of chickpea flour and produce dough has an acceptable dynamic rheological properties.
June 04, 2011; Accepted: October 21, 2011;
Published: November 19, 2011
Pulses, including beans and chickpea are one of the most important crops in
the world because of their nutritional quality. They are rich sources of complex
carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals (Wang et
al., 2010). Pulses have shown numerous health benefits, e.g., lower
glycemic index for people with diabetes (Goni and Valentin-Gamazo,
2003) increased satiation and cancer prevention as well as protection against
cardiovascular diseases due to their dietary fiber content (Chillo
et al., 2008). Legumes are recognized as the best source of vegetable
protein legumes (Molina et al., 2002). However,
in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in other legumes such
as chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Chickpea is a popular crop in the arid
and semi-arid areas of North-Western China (Zhang et
al., 2007). Due to their good balance of amino acid, high protein bioavailability
and relatively low levels of anti-nutritional factors, chickpea seed have been
considered a suitable source of dietary proteins. Chickpea dry seeds can also
be consumed as whole or decorticated after cooking and processing in different
ways. In addition to these uses, the flour of decorticated chickpea seeds is
used in several dishes and as a supplement in weaning food mixes, bread and
biscuits (Alajaji and El-Adawy, 2006). The mostly consumed
product is bread and this has prompted the need to improve its nutritive values
by applying additives for adequate feeding of the population.
Rheology is defined as a study of the deformation and flow of matter (Bourne,
2002). The applications of rheology have expanded into food processing,
food acceptability and handling. Many researches have been conducted to understand
the rheology of various types of food such as food powder (Grabowski
et al., 2008), liquid food (Park, 2007),
gels (Foegeding, 2007), emulsions (Corredig
and Alexander, 2008).
Dynamic oscillatory measurements and creep-recovery has been used to characterise
the mechanical properties of proteins, starch, lipids in the dough and the interactions
between the components (Edwards et al., 1999).
The complexity of the dough makes it difficult to use fundamental methods in
characterising differences in flour qualities and predicting baking performance
(Safari-Ardi and Phan-Thien, 1998). Therefore, the aim
of this study was to determine the effect of the partial or complete replacement
of wheat flour by chickpea flour on the dynamic rheological properties and physical
processes of dough.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Raw materials: Chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) variant kabule was bought on December 2010 from Turkish supermarket (Gazi) in Berlin-Germany. Chickpea flours were obtained after grinding chickpea grains in a laboratory hammer mill (Retsch-Germany) until they could pass through a 1.0 mm screen. Commercial wheat flour type 405 was obtained from Lidl Market (Berlin-Germany).
Chemical analysis: Proximate composition was carried out according to
the official methods (ICC, 2001). Moisture content was
determined by drying the samples at 105°C to constant weight. Ash content
was determined by calcinations at 900°C. Nitrogen content was determined
by using Kieldahl method with factor of 5.7 to determine protein content. The
total lipid content was determined by defeating in the soxhelt apparatus with
hexane. The determination of starch content was assessed using a polarimetric
method according to Ewers, modified by (Davidek et al.,
1981). All the measurements of analyzed samples were made in triplicate.
Doughs preparation: Five blends were prepared by mixing the wheat flour with chickpea flours in the proportions of 100:0, 90.10, 80:20, 70:30 and 0:100 (wheat:Chickpea w/w) using a mixer with a spiral blade which is usually used for dough mixing. The doughs were prepared by mixing different blends with 62% water for 5 min in a mixer at 25°C. Immediately after mixing, dough was transferred to the measuring system of the rheometer.
Dynamic rheological testes: A rheometer paar physica universal dynamic spectrometer 200 (Physica®, Anton Paar GmbH, Austria Europe) was used for measuring the rheological properties of dough samples. Operation, including temperature control and data handling, was conducted using PC-based software provided by the rheometer manufacturer (Rheological Instruments AB, Lund, Sweden). Each time, a sample was taken of a given blend (wheat flour + chickpea flour), containing 6 g of dry matter and combined with a specific amount of water, equivalent to the water absorption of the blend at the level of 62% (at 14% moisture basis). The consistency of the sample obtained at that level of dough moisture permitted its placement by hand within the measurement system of the rheometer. The dough was kneaded for 5 min using a mixer with a spiral blade. Next, the sample was transferred onto the lower plate of the rheometer and pressed down with the upper plate, 25 mm in diameter, until a gap of 2 mm was obtained. The excess of the sample, protruding beyond the edge of the upper plate, was trimmed off while drops of fluid silicon oil were placed around the uncovered surface of the sample to protect the sample from loss of moisture during the test. In this condition the sample was left to rest for 1 min. That period permitted the relaxation of normal stresses generated in the course of compression of the sample. All rheological tests were made at a constant temperature of the lower plate (25°C), controlled by means of an external thermostatic bath. The sample was first subjected to dynamic oscillation shear tests in the mode of oscillation strain control. The amplitude of relative strain was 10-3 ≤γ≤1 and fell within the linear viscoelastic region for all samples. The limits of the region were determined based on an experiment in which increasing stress was applied, at constant oscillation frequency of 1 Hz.
Applying oscillation frequencies within the range from 0.1 to 20 Hz at constant strain γ = 10-3. Each logarithmic frequency decade corresponded to 30 measurement points. The cycle of dynamic tests was followed by a 10 min period of relaxation. Then, the dough sample was subjected to the creep test, applying a constant shear stress of 50 Pa for 60 sec on the sample and allowing the sample to recover the strain in 180 sec after removal of load. The dynamic tests and the creep tests were made in three replications, each on a freshly prepared sample of dough. The figures present the measurement results after their averaging.
Modeling of the resulting curve
Oscillation measurements: Dynamic oscillatory tests of dough samples
were conducted using the frequency sweep mode. The measured responses of the
material were the maximum amplitude of the strain and the phase difference (or
phase angle) between the applied stress and the resulting strain wave. If the
data of frequency sweeps for each material at different concentration are plotted
as G΄(ω)or G΄΄(ω) in a double logarithmic diagram,
different lines with equal slope are obtained for different samples of dough.
The mathematical forms of these equations are given below:
For an individual material the coefficients G΄1Hz and G΄΄1Hz are the storage and loss moduli, respectively, extrapolated to the values of the initial measuring frequency, ω1 or ω2.
|| Creep and creep recovery curve
Creep measurement: A constant stress τ, is applied to the sample from time t0 to t2 (phase of applied stress; load). During this stage the deformation γ reaches its maximum value γmax at time t2 (creep). γmax depends on stuffiness (rigidity modulus) and zero shear viscosity η0. At time t2, stress τ is removed instantly (load removed or off-load; recovery phase, respond, Fig. 1).
During this recovery phase, the entire stored deformation energy is used up for the restoration process. At time t4, can calculate the elastic part γe (i.e., solid properties) as well as the viscous part γv (i.e., liquid properties) of deformation (Fig. 1). The viscous part of deformation energy dissipates as friction heat. The recovery value γe/γmax is an equivalent to the percentage of the solid properties which arise in creep tests. Further rheological parameters can be derived from these data:
The zero shear viscosity η0 characterizes the flow ability
at the end of the applied load phase. This viscosity is measured at very small
shear rates and represents a material-dependent constant of the examined sample.
High values of η0 correspond to small flow abilities (Tanner,
1986). The estimation of η0 results from Eq.
1 and 2 at a steady-state shear rate .
The compliance or creep function Je(t) characterizes the flowability as time-dependent parameter during the creep recovery phase:
The equilibrium compliance Je corresponds to the elastic properties of material and can be calculated as follows:
The final or total rigidity modulus G0 (also end stiffness) represents the elastic properties of the substance examined at lowest levels of deformation (non-destructive method):
It can be calculated as the quotient of the commanded stress τ and the
reversible elastic part γe of deformation. Finally, the relaxation
time λ defines the time needed for the commanded stress to reach of its
initial value τ (creep recovery phase) (Schwarzel, 1990):
Statistical analysis: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was carried out using
SAS program (Statistical Analysis System version. 9.1) (SAS,
2004). The rheological properties of wheat dough with or without chickpea
were analysed using ANOVA. When the treatment factor effect was found significant,
indicated by a significant f-test (p<0.05), differences between the respective
means were determined using Least Significant Difference (LSD) and considered
significant when p<0.05. The averages of three measurements for the viscoelastic
moduli of dough samples were used.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Chemical composition of wheat and chickpea flours: Data in (Table
1) indicate that proximate composition varied among wheat flour as well
as chickpea raw flour. Protein, fat and ash contents in chickpea raw flour were
higher than that recorded in wheat flour. However, starch was detected in wheat
flour at higher level than that found in chickpea raw flour. These results confirmed
by statistical analysis which highly significant differences (p<0.05) were
observed between the two type of flours.
Amplitude sweep: Amplitude sweeps were run on pure wheat flour dough,
composite flour doughs and pure chickpea flour dough at a constant oscillation
frequency of 1 Hz in order to evaluate the linear viscoelastic region. Figure
2 shows that dynamic measurements, i.e., G΄ and tan δ were practically
independent at all values of strain amplitude (γ) examined.
On the basis of these results, the linear viscoelastic behaviour was at the
range of 10-4 ≤γ≤ 10-3 with a dominant solid
state behavior (G΄>G΄΄ and loss factor < 1), followed by
a decrease of both moduli and an increase in loss factor at structural break
(tan δ = 1) for pure chickpea flour and composite flour while The value
of moduli increased with an increase in strain amplitude for pure wheat flour
dough. This increase might be attributed to the difference between interaction
of starch-gluten in wheat flour and the interaction in pure chickpea dough.
Such a notable domination of the storage modulus over the loss modulus indicates
that wheat dough is a highly structured material and behaves like a viscoelastic
body in which the elastic properties (G΄) clearly dominate over the viscous
properties (G΄΄) which is in agreement with earlier studies (Letang
et al., 1999). The total and macro structure is experiencing a break
down, (completely destroyed). A sub-structure is not available. The deformation
of destruction γz with G΄ = G΄΄ is located by
Wheat flour dough at 0.6 and by chickpea flour dough at 0.1. The curves of tan
δ indicated that the chickpea dough came to structural instability faster
than wheat flour dough, despite the high protein content, the high level structure
and the relatively greater particle size of chickpea flour in comparison to
the wheat flour. With the additions of chickpea flour to dough samples, the
total protein concentration of chickpea-dough samples increased, as a result,
the tendency of the proteins to aggregate and the interactions of gluten network
were enhanced. The effect of glutenin in increasing the G΄ and G΄΄
of dough was reported (Song and Zheng, 2007). The storage
and loss modulus level of the blend flour doughs among each other has
little differences in comparison to the wheat flour dough.
Frequency sweep: The relations G΄, G΄΄ and tan δ with frequency sweep for pure wheat flour dough, composite flour doughs and pure chickpea flour dough are presented in Fig. 3.
|| The variation of moduli with amplitude for wheat flour, chickpea
flour and composite flour doughs
||The variation of moduli with frequency for wheat flour, chickpea
flour and composite flour doughs. (a) Storage modulus G΄ and
loss modulus G΄΄. (b) Loss factor
The presented data indicate that increase of oscillation frequency within the
range from 0.1 to 20 Hz caused an increase in the values of the dynamic moduli-the
storage modulus and the loss modulus for pure wheat-and chickpea flour dough
as well as for composite flour dough. Whereas, the values of the tangent of
the phase angle, being the ratio of G΄΄/G΄, decreased gently
while the oscillation frequency increased from 0. 1 to approximately 1 Hz while
higher frequencies caused an increase of those values. A similar frequency dependence
was noted by Pedersen et al. (2004) for cookie
doughs but not confirmed with (Rasper, 1993) who is reported
that when higher frequencies is used, G΄΄ becomes greater than G΄
due to viscoelastic solid conversion to elastoviscous liquid. These results
mean that the capacity of the tested dough for dissipation (whose measure is
the value of G΄΄) and storage (whose measure is the value of G΄)
of the energy used for its deformation increases with increase in the oscillation
frequency. Energy is dissipated through friction that takes place during the
slippage of one dough structural element past another, e.g., chains of gliadin
proteins which are synonymous of the viscous component of gluten. Whereas, the
storage of energy takes place through reversible rearrangements within the particular
elements building the structure of dough, e.g., high molecular weight glutenin
subunits which represent the elastic component of gluten (Song
and Zheng, 2007).
The additions of chickpea at different concentration (10, 20 and 30%), had
a similar effect on the run of the mechanical spectra of wheat dough. Increase
in the percentage share of the additions caused a shift of curves G΄ and
G΄΄ towards higher values. The data indicate that the additions applied
caused an increase in tested dough elasticity (G΄) and viscosity (G΄΄),
the increase in elasticity dominating over that in viscosity, as a result of
which tan δ decreased. Frequency sweep experiments showed that for all
tested dough formulations the elastic (or storage) modulus, G΄, was greater
than the viscous (or loss) modulus, G΄΄, in the whole range of frequencies
and both moduli slightly increased with frequency which suggests a solid elastic-like
behavior of the chickpea doughs. Therefore, tan δ (= G΄΄/G΄)
values for all dough formulations were lower than 1 (Fig. 3).
Similar observations on dynamic rheological studies have been reported previously
for wheat flour doughs (Dobraszczyk and Morgenstern, 2003;
Edwards et al., 2003), as well as for rice flour
dough (Gujral et al., 2003; Sivaramakrishnan
et al., 2004). G' and G" level increased with the increase of the
chickpea proportion in the mixtures which characterized a different module developments
in logical dependency on the chickpea concentration, this result is conflict
with Hao et al. (2008), who reported that the
decrease of G' and G" with the increasing of alfalfa powder concentration from
10% to 20% was possibly due to the cutting effect of large amount of alfalfa
granules which disturbed the structure and intensity of continuous gluten network
during the forming of dough. This material behaviour results primarily from
particle interactions of the dispersed phase from the point contact of the larger
flour particles with increased viscoelasticity. Conditional protein interactions
should increase the viscoelastic relation due to the effect as a dispersion
Maximum of structure stability is determined generally at a frequency of 1
Hz. Increase of moduli in the frequency range f<1 Hz due to the enhancement
of the viscous behavior. While at higher frequencies f>1 Hz, their increasing
may be due to destruction of structures which occurring at higher loads. Chickpea
flour dough showed an increased level of dynamic moduli compared to the wheat
flour dough and dough exposed to be higher solid state properties. In contrast,
the wheat flour dough showed as a viscous, soft and deformable dough with better
processing properties. Chickpea fortification made the dough particles increasingly
sticky, causing them to aggregate during mixing. Chickpea flour contains significant
levels of soluble Non-starch Polysaccharides (NSP), about ten times higher than
bread wheat flour (Naivikul and DAppolonia, 1979)
and this may have contributed to the increased stickiness. Increasing chickpea
fortification decreased water absorption and resulted in less stable doughs.
This observation is in contrast with a similar study by Hui
(1996), who reported that substituting wheat flour with 8, 15 and 25% chickpea
flour reduced water absorption about 2%. However, similar results have been
reported previously for wheat incorporating legume flours or their protein concentrates
(Rasmay et al., 2000). Many of these effects
can be attributed to weakening of the gluten matrix due to the incorporation
of chickpea flour which contains no gluten. Chickpea proteins are comprised
mainly of globulins (53-60%) with lesser concentrations of albumins, prolamins
and glutelins (Dhawan et al., 1991).
High value of the exponent which calculated from equation 1
refer to the configuration of structure and the frequency-dependent structural
stability. Wheat flour showed a high values of the exponents and structural
stability of the dough compared to the chickpea flour dough.
Creep tests: The different creep curves for all the samples are shown in Fig. 4. The instantaneously recovered elastic strain just after the removal of load was high for the pure wheat dough. There was a considerable variation in the creep behavior between the composite flours and pure chickpea flour dough.
The creep deformation and the recovery for the composite flour with chickpea flour were almost similar to that of pure wheat dough except for the pure chickpea flour dough. The result of the creep curve analysis for both creep phase and the recovery phase is given in Table 2. The zero shear viscosity η0 which gave the flowability of the material at the end of applied load, was very high for pure chickpea flour dough sample. Flowability decreased with increasing the chickpea flour concentration in mixture when compared with the wheat flour dough.
From the Table 2 is seen that the wheat flour dough compared
to the chickpea flour dough showed higher values of the maximum deformation,
compliance and the recovery energy but lower values of the zero shear viscosity
and shear modulus for wheat flour dough, this indicate of better flow properties
of the dough. On the other hand, the high value of zero shear viscosity and
shear modulus for chickpea and composite flour dough, lead to lower in the fluidity
of the dough (tendency to rigidity). With increasing the chickpea flour concentration
in dough system (blend flour), the maximum deformation and elastic recovery
decreased (from 2.67 to 1.60) due to the increasing of solid state properties,
thus poorer processing properties were proved.
|| Creep analysis curves for wheat flour dough, chickpea flour
dough and composite flour dough
|| Results of creep tests of wheat- and chickpea flour and the
dependence on concentration
Although the deterioration in the structural development has been demonstrated
in the dough system after the addition of chickpea flour to the wheat flour,
the blends flour doughs show permissible dough processing properties through
the dominance of the wheat flour proportion. So, wheat flour can carry up to
30% (w/w) of chickpea flour and produce dough has an acceptable dynamic rheological
The rheological properties of dough and their phase change behaviors were discussed. The value of moduli increased with an increase in frequency for pure wheat- and chickpea flour dough as well as for composite flour dough. The results showed that rheological properties of all doughs were characterized as dispersion system and indicated the distinctive elastic behavior (G΄>G΄΄). Increasing of chickpea proportion in the mixtures caused increasing of G' and G"- level. The flowability was very low for pure chickpea flour dough sample compared to pure wheat flour dough. The flowability decreased with increasing the chickpea flour concentration in blend-dough. Despite all this, the addition of chickpeas to the wheat flour did not significantly affect on the properties of dough. Moreover, the nutritional values have been improved by the addition of chickpeas. In general, it is clear that the addition of chickpea flour up to 30% is not affected on the working properties of the dough.
||Storage modulus, Pa
||Loss modulus, Pa
||Complex shear modulus, Pa
||Total rigidity modulus, Pa
||Elastic part of compliance, Pa-1
||Viscous part of compliance, Pa-1
||Maximum viscoelastic compliance, Pa-1
||Exponent used to determine the storage modulus
||Exponent used to determine the loss modulus
||Angular frequency, Hz
||Shear rate, s-1
||Steady-state shear rate, s-1
||Viscosity, Pa · s
||Zero shear viscosity, Pa · s
||Complex viscosity, Pa · s
||Shear stress, Pa
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