Are Teachers Qualified to Teach Entrepreneurship? Analysis of Entrepreneurial Attitude and Self-efficacy
Z.A. Lope Pihie
Recent research on the impacts of entrepreneurship education revealed that graduates lack the motivation and competencies required for new venture creation. Students entrepreneurial motivation and competencies can be highly influenced by teachers attitude toward and self-efficacy in entrepreneurship. However, there is little knowledge about entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy of teachers specifically at vocational and technical schools. This study aimed to examine entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy among 315 teachers from technical and vocational secondary schools in Malaysia. It employed a survey research method and a set of questionnaire to measure the teachers' entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy. Analysis of the data indicated that the teachers had attitudes as consistent with entrepreneurs and a high entrepreneurial self-efficacy. More specifically, the teachers scored high in all dimensions of entrepreneurial attitude except self-esteem affect and behavior, personal control affect, personal control cognition and innovation behavior. Therefore, the teachers have a positive attitude towards entrepreneurship and a high sense of self-efficacy.
July 14, 2011; Accepted: September 15, 2011;
Published: October 12, 2011
Recent research on the impacts of entrepreneurship education revealed that
graduates lack the motivation and competencies required for new venture creation
(Oosterbeek et al., 2010; Matlay,
2008). Students motivation, learning and achievement can highly be
influenced by teachers tendency and ability to teach effectively (Bayraktar,
2011; Tschannen-Moran and Hoy, 2001; Tschannen-Moran
et al., 1998). To improve students entrepreneurial learning and
competencies, therefore, they should be taught by qualified teachers who have
a positive attitude toward entrepreneurship and a strong sense of entrepreneurial
self-efficacy (Peltonen, 2008). However, there is little
knowledge about attitude and self-efficacy of teachers in general (Bayraktar,
2011; Adedoyin, 2010) and Malaysian teachers in
particular (Wah, 2007).
Additionally, the importance and necessity of technical and vocational education
and training for entrepreneurs and those who are involved in entrepreneurial
endeavors has been identified by previous searchers (Hussain
and Matlanday, 2007; Matlay, 2001). Yet, few empirical
studies have been published about entrepreneurial competencies in the context
of technical and vocational education (Pihie and Bagheri,
2010). In response, this study was an attempt to narrow the gaps through
examining entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy among Malaysian teachers
from technical and vocational schools.
Teachers' attitude and self-efficacy: Based on the theory of planed
behavior (Ajzen, 1991), attitude is one of the main factors
that influences ones behavior. Teachers attitude toward a subject
not only affect their choice to teach that subject and the quality of their
instructional performance (Harlen and Holroyd, 1997),
but also influences students attitudes toward the subject, their motivation
to learn the subject, and their achievement (Chong et
al., 2010). Importantly, environmental and contextual factors such as
teacher education programs can improve a positive attitude toward a particular
subject among teachers (Bayraktar, 2011).
A review of the definitions proposed for teacher self-efficacy indicates a
process of evolution. The first definitions focused on teacher efficacy as general
beliefs in ones abilities to enhance motivation and learning of all students
particularly, unmotivated and difficult ones (Guskey and
Passaro, 1994). Derived from locus of control construct, teacher
efficacy in this sense is a personal perception about ones ability to
overcome the impacts of the environment and enhance students motivation,
attitude, learning, and achievement (Huang et al.,
2007). The deficits of this definition in terms of neglecting specificity
of teacher efficacy to the subject and context has led researchers to seek more
robust theoretical foundations for teacher efficacy definition and measurement
(Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998).
Later, scholars based teacher efficacy on the social cognitive theory (Bandura,
1997) and defined it as a multi-dimensional construct which develops through
an analytical process of combining information from different sources (Chong
et al., 2010). Based on the theory, Teacher efficacy is the
teachers belief in his or her capability to organize and execute courses
of action required to successfully accomplish a specific teaching task in a
particular context (Tschannen-Moran et al.,
1998, P.233). Teachers beliefs about their abilities to teach and
influence students motivation and learning take shape through dynamic,
continuous and reciprocal interactions between personal, behavioral, and environmental
factors (Bandura, 1997). These beliefs highly affect the
time and effort that teachers spend in teaching practices, their persistence
in the face of difficulties and the extent of emotional arousal such as stress
or anxiety they experience in dealing with difficulties (Tschannen-Moran
and Hoy, 2001).
According to this definition, teacher efficacy consists of two main aspects
including personal teacher self-efficacy and outcome teaching self-efficacy
(Bayraktar, 2011). Personal teacher self-efficacy reflects
teachers perceived capacity to successfully perform the roles and tasks
of a teacher. Outcome teaching efficacy indicates teachers perceived abilities
to effectively create the desired behaviors, skills and competencies in students.
While teacher self-efficacy motivates teachers to select or avoid teaching a
specific subject, teaching self-efficacy enables them to effectively perform
various instructional roles and apply different teaching strategies in a particular
subject and context. Although there is a correlation between personal and specific
teaching self-efficacy, they are two different constructs that build teacher
self-efficacy independently (Tschannen-Moran and Johnson,
2011). Tschannen-Moran et al. (1998) argued
that personal teacher self-efficacy precedes and facilitates outcome teaching
self-efficacy formation and greatly affects its development. Importantly, teacher
self-efficacy develops through involvement in practicing real teaching roles
and tasks (Tschannen-Moran and Hoy, 2001; Wah,
2007; Bandura, 1997). Examining secondary school teachers
self-efficacy formation, Adedoyin (2010) recently concluded
that the teachers build their teaching self-efficacy through interacting and
in relation to their teaching practices, students and teaching environment.
The authors emphasized that secondary school teachers construct their teaching
efficacy mostly based on their capability to create an encouraging teaching
and learning environment in the classroom.
Tschannen-Moran et al. (1998) developed a comprehensive
model for teacher self-efficacy development based on situational nature of the
construct. According to the model, teacher self-efficacy takes shape by a personal
cognitive process through which teachers construct a sense of capability for
their future instructional behaviors by analyzing their past experiences and
outcomes of their current performances. Therefore, teacher self-efficacy formation
and development is both a retrospective (based on previous experiences) and
a prospective (future-oriented) process that occurs over time. In this sense,
teacher self-efficacy is a complex personal process that can be formed and developed
by environmental factors. Cognitive abilities of teachers to analyze, weight
and interpret the information from different resources play a key role in developing
their teaching self-efficacy. Therefore, teachers differ in terms of their teaching
self-efficacy beliefs and consequently their effectiveness in teaching based
on their cognitive and reflective abilities.
Teachers' entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy: In entrepreneurship
context, attitude has been defined as the extent to which one perceives entrepreneurial
behavior and its consequences as valuable, beneficial and favorable (Ajzen,
2002). Robinson et al. (1991) identified
four dimensions for entrepreneurial attitude including need for achievement,
personal control over behavior, innovation, and self-esteem. Need for achievement
reflects the perceived results and outcomes of new venture creation (Hansemark,
1998). Personal control over entrepreneurship behavior is individuals
perceived control and influence on venture creation outcomes. Innovation is
thinking of new ideas, products and methods and developing them to be effective
in practice. Finally, self-esteem indicates individuals perceived confidence
in their entrepreneurial competence. Each of the entrepreneurial attitude aspects
is measured in three dimensions including affection (feeling and emotion), cognition
(thought and belief), and conation (action and behavior). It is the combination
of all these dimensions that constructs individuals general attitude toward
entrepreneurial behavior. Teachers should possess an entrepreneurial attitude
to improve students' entrepreneurial motivation and competencies (Peltonen,
2008). Yet, research on entrepreneurial attitude has been mostly focused
on measuring students attitudes toward entrepreneurship (Harris
and Gibson, 2008) and there is little information about entrepreneurial
attitudes of teachers.
Given the assumption that teacher efficacy is a subject-specific and contextual-oriented
construct (Bandura, 1997), a growing body of research
focused on measuring teachers efficacy in different subjects and contexts
(Tschannen-Moran and Johnson, 2011; Siwatu,
2011; Chong et al., 2010; Tschannen-Moran
and Hoy, 2007). Accordingly, entrepreneurship researchers have shown an
increasing interest in conceptualizing and measuring entrepreneurship teachers
efficacy and specifying the contextual and environmental factors that influence
development of a strong sense of self-efficacy among them (Peltonen,
2008; Gibbs, 2002). It is argued that analysis of
teaching tasks in a specific subject and context is one of the significant factors
that shapes teacher self-efficacy (Tschannen-Moran et
al., 1998). Therefore, to explain how self-efficacy may assist teachers
to effectively teach entrepreneurship, the particular tasks that entrepreneurship
teachers need to accomplish should be specified.
Peltonen (2008) emphasizes that it is vital for teachers
to become more entrepreneurial if entrepreneurial learning should be improved
among students. Particularly, teachers need to act in an entrepreneurial way
in discovering opportunities and innovatively exploiting them (Heinonen
and Poikkijoki, 2006). Entrepreneurship teachers should apply innovative
teaching methods, cope with various challenges of teaching entrepreneurship
and engage students in the process and challenges of entrepreneurship learning
(Adedoyin, 2010; Heinonen and Poikkijoki,
2006; Smith et al., 2006). Previous research
findings indicate that self-efficacy helps teachers to apply innovative teaching
methods, engage students in challenging learning opportunities, persevere in
the face of obstacles, and improve students persistence to deal with the
complexities and difficulties of learning process (Deemer,
2004; Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998). Furthermore,
entrepreneurship teachers should have a strong motivation to teach and maintain
their motivation through the whole process of instructional delivery (Fiet,
2000). Self-efficacy highly improves teachers motivation and abilities
to teach (Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998).
Entrepreneurship learning is an experiential process which highly requires
students to practice real roles and tasks of an entrepreneur and deal with the
challenges associated with managing a new venture (Richardson
and Hynes, 2008; Heinonen, 2007; Heinonen
and Poikkijoki, 2006). Students should also be involved in participatory
and collaborative activities in which students, academics, and entrepreneurs
incorporate in the process of entrepreneurship learning (Pittaway
and Cope, 2007; Heinonen and Poikkijoki, 2006; Smith
et al., 2006; Gibbs, 2002). Teachers play
critical roles in creating such a pragmatic and social interactive environment
which improves students entrepreneurial self-efficacy through mastery
experiences, vicarious learning, verbal persuasion and social support (Deemer,
2004; Gibbs, 2002; Bandura, 1997).
This study employed a survey research method to determine entrepreneurial attitude
and efficacy among teachers from technical and vocational secondary schools.
Selection of only secondary school teachers was based on the assumption that
teachers perceptions toward entrepreneurship education and their self-efficacy
in teaching entrepreneurship vary in different school levels (Gibbs,
2002). A sample of 315 teachers from three selected states in Malaysia participated
in this study. Data were collected in October to November, 2008. Permission
to conduct the survey was obtained from the Educational Planning and Research
Division, the Ministry of Education and the Directors of Education of the three
selected states. The school principals were contacted to fix the date of data
collection. The principals made the necessary preparations with teachers of
form four vocational and technical classes. Data were collected by the researchers.
To measure teachers Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation (EAO) and Entrepreneurial
Self-Efficacy (ESE), a questionnaire was developed based on previous researches.
The questionnaire consisted of three main sections. First section contained
demographic information of the teachers including age, gender, years of teaching
experience and race. The second section measured teachers Entrepreneurial
Attitude Orientation (EAO) based on a questionnaire developed by Robinson
et al. (1991). This section assessed teachers entrepreneurial
attitudes in four dimensions including achievement, self-esteem, personal control,
and innovation. A reliability test was conducted, and a Cronbachs α
of 0.94 was obtained which indicates that this section was highly reliable for
measuring the teachers EAO. The last section encompassed modified items
from entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) questionnaire developed by De
Noble et al. (1999) in six dimensions. This section consisted of
items related to coping with unexpected challenges, developing new products
and opportunities, building an innovative environment, initiating investor relationships,
defining the core purpose, and developing critical human resources. This part
of the questionnaire was also reliable (α = 0.89) to assess the teachers
entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE). The teachers were asked to state their
agreement to the items based on a 5-point Likert scale, with 1 indicating strongly
disagree and 5 indicating strongly agree. A mean score above
3.80 was considered high, 3.40 to 3.79 was considered moderate and below 3.39
was considered low. Statistical techniques such as mean and standard deviation
were utilized to analyze the data.
Analysis of the data showed that the teachers from technical and vocational secondary schools had attitudes consistent with entrepreneurs in different dimensions of achievement and innovation as illustrated in Table 1. Moreover, the teachers scored high in different dimensions of personal control and low in self-esteem dimensions except self-esteem cognition in which the teachers scored high.
Table 2 illustrates the mean scores for entrepreneurial self-efficacy
of vocational and technical secondary school teachers. The teachers perceived
themselves as highly capable in all categories of entrepreneurial self-efficacy.
From the teachers perceptions, they were highly efficacious in performing
different roles and tasks of an entrepreneur.
||Mean scores of vocational and technical secondary school teachers
on entrepreneurial attitude orientation
||Technical and vocational secondary school teachers entrepreneurial
Specifically, they perceived themselves as highly capable of coping with unexpected
challenges, developing new products and market opportunities, building an innovative
environment, initiating relationship with investors, defining core purposes
and developing critical human resources. With this high entrepreneurial self-efficacy,
it seems that teachers are more likely to be effective in delivering innovative
and challenging teaching methods which are essential for entrepreneurship instruction
(Adedoyin, 2010; Heinonen and Poikkijoki,
Better understanding of teachers entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy
is prominently urgent if entrepreneurship educators are to create more efficacious
and competent entrepreneurs out of today students. However, there are few researches
on teachers attitude and self-efficacy in entrepreneurship educational
settings. Specifically, few empirical studies have been conducted in technical
and vocational schools where teachers play key roles in exposing students to
requisite knowledge and skills for their future career path (Pihie
and Bagheri, 2010, 2011). This lack of knowledge
may affect developing entrepreneurial motivation and knowledge among students.
It may also influence provision of effective entrepreneurship education, training
and professional development programs for entrepreneurship teachers. Measuring
teachers attitudes toward a particular subject and their perceptions about
their capacity to successfully teach that subject is the first step in improving
a positive attitude and strong self-efficacy among them (Tschannen-Moran
et al., 1998). It is argued that through measuring teacher attitude
and self-efficacy their teaching and assessment practices in the classroom and
their performance in the school system can be predicted (Bayraktar,
2011; Adedoyin, 2010). In addition, the more teachers
are engaged in the process of learning a specific field, the better they can
involve their students in the process of learning that field (Tschannen-Moran
and Johnson, 2011).
The findings of this study indicated that overall the secondary school teachers
had attitudes consistent with entrepreneurs. However, the teachers scored moderate
to low in some dimensions of their entrepreneurial attitude. In particular,
they had low scores in self-esteem affect and behavior and scored moderate in
personal control affect, personal control cognition and innovation behavior.
To improve teachers effectiveness in teaching entrepreneurship, these
aspects of teachers entrepreneurial attitude require to be improved by
more effective entrepreneurship teacher education and training programs (Van
Wyk and Boshoff, 2004).
From the teachers perceptions, they are highly efficacious in performing
all of the critical roles and tasks of an entrepreneur. With this high entrepreneurial
self-efficacy, they appear to have a positive attitude toward their entrepreneurship
teaching abilities and students abilities to learn entrepreneurship skills
(Adedoyin, 2010). Furthermore, the teachers are more
likely able to instill a positive attitude toward entrepreneurial endeavors
and learning entrepreneurial as well as a high sense of entrepreneurial self-efficacy
in students (Bayraktar, 2011; Tschannen-Moran
and Hoy, 2001). High entrepreneurial efficacy seems to enable the teachers
to enthusiastically deliver entrepreneurship instructional methods, use innovative
and challenging methods to teach entrepreneurship (Deemer,
2004). They can also more effectively deal with the challenges and complexities
of teaching entrepreneurship and the difficulties they may face in their teaching
contexts (Tschannen-Moran and Hoy, 2001). Additionally,
the teachers with a high sense of entrepreneurial self-efficacy assess their
teaching practices when students fail and consider students mistakes as
a part of entrepreneurship learning process (Adedoyin, 2010;
Chan et al., 2007).
High entrepreneurial self-efficacy of the teachers may also indicate that they
are highly confident in improving their instructional content and teaching methods
to better match students learning needs (Tschannen-Moran
et al., 1998). High entrepreneurial self-efficacy motivates the teachers
to engage in entrepreneurial activities and develop a better understanding of
entrepreneurs real life and improve students abilities to cope with
challenges of a new venture creation (Zhao et al.,
2005; Chen et al., 1998). The findings of
this study showed that the teachers scored high in coping with unexpected challenges
of entrepreneurship. This high efficacy in coping with challenges enables the
teachers to improve students awareness of the inherited difficulties of
a new venture creation and develop their skills to successfully overcome the
difficulties. In addition, teachers high efficacy in building an innovative
environment empowers them to facilitate students innovativeness and risk
taking (Chen et al., 1998).
While there is a robust and increasing body of research on teachers attitude
and self-efficacy beliefs in different fields, research on teachers attitude
and self-efficacy in the complex domain of entrepreneurship education is limited.
Based on the findings of this study, it can be concluded that the technical
and vocational secondary schools provided sources of information that enhanced
the teachers entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy because secondary
school teachers mainly build their self-efficacy based on their practices in
the classroom. The findings provide a clearer picture of entrepreneurial competence
among technical and vocational secondary school teachers.
Examining different dimensions of entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy among teachers reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the teachers in each dimension. This may assist entrepreneurship teacher educators to design more purposeful entrepreneurship training and professional development programs for entrepreneurship teachers. To improve teachers entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy, the programs can enhance their awareness of the strengths and weaknesses in each dimension and involve them in learning opportunities based on their strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, the findings can assist entrepreneurship teachers to analyze their specific tasks and roles in teaching entrepreneurship. Teachers also can benefit from the findings of this study to assess their learning methods for entrepreneurship and improve them in order to better enhance students entrepreneurial self-efficacy. The findings also contribute new understanding of the pattern of entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy among technical and vocational secondary school teachers which may assist school principals to provide the educational environment that the teachers can effectively teach entrepreneurship.
However, more research into the aspects of entrepreneurship teachers attitude in which the teachers scored moderate or low would be useful to better prepare them for their complex and challenging tasks in teaching entrepreneurship. Furthermore, it would be useful to examine if the high level of entrepreneurial self-efficacy among teachers leads to implementing experiential and innovative entrepreneurship teaching methods. Future research can also specify the sources of information in vocational and technical schools that build teachers' entrepreneurial self-efficacy in order to provide them with more effective entrepreneurship education and training programs. Additionally, future studies can examine whether mastery experiences or actual teaching accomplishment with students is the strongest source of entrepreneurship teachers' teaching efficacy development as for other teachers. Finally, it is of great theoretical and practical value to assess entrepreneurship teachers self-efficacy through a scale specifically developed for measuring entrepreneurship teaching self-efficacy.
Adedoyin, O.O., 2010. Factor-analytic study of teachers' perceptions on self-efficacy in Botswana junior secondary schools: Implications for educational quality. Eur. J. Educ. Stud., 2: 139-155.
Direct Link |
Ajzen, I., 1991. The theory of planned behavior. Organiz. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., 50: 179-211.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Ajzen, I., 2002. Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control and the theory of planned behavior. J. Applied Soc. Psychol., 32: 665-683.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Bandura, A., 1997. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. Freeman Press, New York, ISBN: 9780716726265, Pages: 604.
Bayraktar, S., 2011. Turkish preservice primary school teachers' science teaching efficacy beliefs and attitudes toward science: The effect of a primary teacher education program. Sch. Sci. Math., 111: 83-92.
Chan, K.W., J. Tan and A. Khoo, 2007. Pre-service teachers' conceptions about teaching and learning: A closer look at Singapore cultural context. Asia-Pac. J. Teach. Educ., 35: 181-195.
Chen, C.C, P.G. Greene and A. Crick, 1998. Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers? J. Bus. Venturing, 13: 295-316.
Chong, W.H., R.M. Klassen, V.S. Huan, I. Wong and A.D. Kates, 2010. The relationships among school types, teacher efficacy beliefs and academic climate: Perspective from Asian middle schools. J. Educ. Res., 103: 183-190.
De Noble, A., D. Jung and S. Ehrlich, 1999. Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy: The Development of a Measure and its Relationship to Entrepreneurial Action. In: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Reynolds, R.D., W.D. Bygrave, S. Manigart, C.M. Mason, G.D. Meyer, H.J. Sapienze and K.G. Shaver (Eds.). P and R Publication Inc., Waltham MA., pp: 73-78.
Deemer, S.A., 2004. Classroom goal orientation in high school classrooms: Revealing links between teacher beliefs and classroom environments. Educ. Res., 46: 73-90.
Fiet, J.O., 2000. The pedagogical side of entrepreneurship theory. J. Bus. Venturing., 16: 101-117.
Direct Link |
Gibbs, C., 2002. Effective teaching: Exercising self-efficacy and thought control of action. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the British Educational Research Association, Sept. 12-14, University of Exeter, UK -.
Guskey, T.R. and P.D. Passaro, 1994. Teacher efficacy: A study of construct dimensions. Am. Educ. Res. J., 31: 627-643.
Hansemark, O.C., 1998. The effects of an entrepreneurship programme on need for achievement and locus of control of reinforcement. Int. J. Entrepreneurial Behav. Res., 4: 28-50.
Harlen, W. and C. Holroyd, 1997. Primary teachers' understanding of concepts of science: Impact on confidence and teaching. Int. J. Sci. Educ., 19: 93-105.
Harris, M.L. and S.G. Gibson, 2008. Examining the entrepreneurial attitudes of US business students. Educ. Training, 50: 568-581.
Heinonen, J. and S.A. Poikkijoki, 2006. An entrepreneurial-directed approach to entrepreneurship education: Mission impossible? J. Manage. Dev., 25: 80-94.
Heinonen, J., 2007. An entrepreneurial-directed approach to teaching corporate entrepreneurship at university level. Educ. Training, 49: 310-324.
Huang, X., M. Liu and K. Shiomi, 2007. An analysis of the relationships between teacher efficacy, teacher self-esteem and orientations to seeking help. Social Behav. Personality, 35: 707-716.
Direct Link |
Hussain, J. and H. Matlay, 2007. Vocational education and training in small ethnic minority businesses in the UK. Educ. Training, 49: 671-685.
Direct Link |
Matlay, H., 2001. Entrepreneurial and vocational education and training in Central and Eastern Europe. Educ. Training, 43: 395-404.
Matlay, H., 2008. The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial outcomes. J. Small Bus. Enterprise Dev., 15: 382-396.
Oosterbeek, H., M. Praag and A. Ijsselstein, 2010. The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurship skills and motivation. Eur. Econ. Rev., 54: 442-454.
Peltonen, K., 2008. Can learning in teams help teachers to become more entrepreneurial? The interplay between efficacy perceptions and team support. LTA, 3: 297-324.
Direct Link |
Pihie, Z.A.L. and A. Bagheri, 2010. Entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial efficacy of technical secondary school students. J. Vocational Educ. Training, 62: 351-366.
Pihie, Z.A.L. and A. Bagheri, 2011. Malay secondary school students' Entrepreneurial attitude orientation and entrepreneurial self-efficacy: A descriptive study. J. Applied Sci., 11: 316-322.
Pittaway, L. and J. Cope, 2007. Simulating entrepreneurial learning: Integrating experiential and collaborative approaches to learning. Manage. Learn., 38: 211-233.
Richardson, I. and B. Hynes, 2008. Entrepreneurship education: towards an industry sector approach. Educ. Training, 50: 188-198.
Robinson, P.B., D.V. Stimpson, J.C. Huefner and H.K. Hunt, 1991. An attitude approach to the prediction of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory Pract., 15: 13-30.
Siwatu, K.O., 2011. Preservice teachers' sense of preparedness and self-efficacy to teach in America's urban and suburban schools: Does context matter. Teach. Educ., 27: 357-365.
Smith, A.J., L.A. Collins and P.D. Hannon, 2006. Embedding new entrepreneurship programmes in UK higher education institutions: Challenges and considerations. Educ. Training, 48: 555-567.
Tschannen-Moran, M. and A.W. Hoy, 2001. Teacher efficacy: Capturing an elusive construct. Teach. Teach. Educ., 17: 783-805.
Tschannen-Moran, M. and A.W. Hoy, 2007. The differential antecedents of self-efficacy beliefs of novice and experienced teachers. Teach. Teach. Educ., 23: 944-956.
Tschannen-Moran, M. and D. Johnson, 2011. Exploring literacy teachers' self-efficacy beliefs: Potential sources at play. Teach. Teach. Educ., 27: 751-761.
Tschannen-Moran, M., A.W. Hoy and W.K. Hoy, 1998. Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure. Rev. Educ. Res., 68: 202-248.
Van Wyk, R. and A.B. Boshoff, 2004. Entrepreneurial attitudes: A distinction between two professional groups. S. Afr. J. Bus. Manage., 35: 33-38.
Direct Link |
Wah, W.K., 2007. Sources of influence on teacher self-efficacy among preservice teachers. Seminar Penyelidikan Pendidikan, Institut Perguruan Batu Lintang Tahun, Malaysia, pp: 1-17.
Zhao, H., S.E. Seibert and G.E. Hills, 2005. The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of entrepreneurial intentions. J. Applied Psychol., 90: 1265-1272.