Recognition of Factors Affecting the Successful Implementation of Electronic-Banking in Iran
This research examines the factors that can speed up
the successful implementation of electronic banking innovations in the
Iranâ€™s country. Through the literature review, the factors affecting
the successful implementation of e-banking in Iran have been detected
and classified into a tri-radiate model of co-structural, content and
context factors. After collecting the questionnaires which were distributed
randomly among experts and IT managers of 90 banks, the data analysis
revealed that there is a meaningful and significant relationship between
these three factors and the successful implementation of e-banking in
Iran. Using Friedman analysis of variance test, the co-structural factors
got first rank, context factors as second and the content factors the
third rank, respectively. Mean while, the influencing factors on implementing
e-banking were classified and ranked. Finally, some recommendations have
been proposed to develop and reinforce the affecting factors bound up
with implementing e-banking.
It is widely believed that the impact of e-commerce enables banks to provide
an inexpensive and direct way of exchanging information and to sell or buy products
and services. Burr defines e-banking as an electronic connection between the
bank and the customer in order to delivering, managing and controlling the financial
interactions (Lustsik, 2004). The advances in information
technology are becoming an important factor to the future development of banking
industry (Kannabiran and Narayan, 2005). E-banking advantages
can be viewed Through two approaches: a) By customer's vision: the high speed
of offering services, easy to use, availability and accuracy, removing time
and place limitations; b) By bank vision: competitive advantage, customer retention
and attraction, etc. (Liao and Choeung, 2002).
E-banking initiated in the years 1993-1994 in Iran. The initial efforts to
information exchange network between banks (shetab) generated by three public
banks in the year 2000. Then, the central bank initiated shetab system with
the aim of creating connection among banks (Bahramian, 2003).
Commercial banks in Iran have been quick to realize the importance of e-banking
to competitive advantage. Since the 2001, they have continuously innovated through
technology-enhanced products and services, such as multi-function Automatic
Teller Machines (ATMs), electronic share application, tele-banking, TV-banking,
electronic transfers, electronic cash cards and Internet-based e-banking. It
can be claimed that Iran have stepped into the e-banking world.
According to ICTna, only 7.5% of Iran banking network customers had possibility
to internet buying at the end of 2008 but the emergence of new private-sector
banks in the country e.g., Pasargad, Saman, Eghtesad Novin and Parsian has changed
the scenario drastically, as the business model of these new banks revolved
around a strong IT backbone. Almost all of these banks costumers have Credit
Card, can buy form internet. Emergence and success over the last several years
have put competitive pressure on many of the state-owned banks to look at IT
as a strategic necessity to remain competitive (Kannabiran
and Narayan, 2005). Therefore, understanding the success factors in e-banking
is important for senior management of banking related organizations because
it would help them improve their e-banking implementation process. In an attempt
to find out how some banks were successful in Iran, this study is to recognize
the effective factors in successful implementation of e-banking in Iran's banking
system, what important indexes came out of their experience which could be used
by others going to implement e-banking.
This study has tested three hypotheses in the form of tri-radiate model for recognizing and ranking effective factors in successful implementation of e-banking:
is a meaningful relation between co-structural factors and successful
implementation of e-banking in Iran's banking system
is a meaningful relation between content factors and successful implementation
of e-banking in Iran's banking system
is a meaningful relation between contextual factors and successful implementation
of e-banking in Iran's banking system
Since 1960, and specially after proposing general systems theory, it seems
less likely that a theorist would not use clarification of theory relation with
these three fundamental concepts in management, i.e., human, organization and
society or environment (Mirzaei and Amiri, 2002).
Tri-radiate model is one of logical models in classifying models. According
to this model, all organizational concepts, events and phenomena can be studied,
analyzed in the frame of tri-radiate (co-structure, content and context) theoretical
model (Mirzaei, 1998).
Co-Structure (Organizational) dimension of organization means all of elements,
physical and non-human factors and conditions of the organization which are
bounded together through special order and regulation and constitute frame,
cover, or physical and material body of the organization. In fact, co-structural
dimension contain non-alive factors of the organization (Sarlak
and Mirzaei, 2005; Mirzaei, 1998). According to
Damanpour (1987) these factors are variables such as
theories are: functional differentiation (the number of different functional
units in an organization), specialization (different areas of expertise in an
organization), professionalism (professional knowledge including employees
education and experience), formalization (the degree to which rules and procedures
are followed in an organization) and centralization (whether decision making
is centralized or distributed).
Individuals do not passively accept and use technology. In contrast, they actively
enact technologies in different ways. They can use it minimally, maximally,
or improvise in ways that are hard to anticipate (Gwebu
and Wang, 2007). Content or human dimension of organization means human
and its behavior in the organization which are bounded together through special
patterns, behavioral norms and unofficial communications and constitutes the
main content of the organization and are regarded as, in fact, alive factors
of the organization (Mirzaei, 1998).
Context dimension includes all environmental and extra-organizational factors
and conditions surrounding the organization and constitute main systems of the
organization such as customers, government, markets and other environmental
elements of the organization (Mirzaei, 1998). Researchers
in information technologies and organizational studies have long pointed out
that an identical technology can be enacted differently in different organizational
context (Boudreau and Robey, 2005; Vinnem
and Liyanage, 2008). They adopt This dimension not only is the most important
and main dimension but also creates the other two ones and general growth and
survival of the organization depends upon it (Mirzaei, 1998).
Damanpour (1987) focused, on the dynamism of the environment and further
classify environmental dynamism into two components: environmental stability
and environmental predictability. These two components have resulted in four
combinations of environment characteristics: stable and predictable, stable
and unpredictable, unstable and predictable, unstable and unpredictable (Gwebu
and Wang, 2007). Reserchers adopt a less deterministic view and propose
that both human agency and the social context within which a technology operates
play an important role in the outcome of the technology (Vinnem
and Liyanage, 2008; Gwebu and Wang, 2007).
Considering research literature and also special problems of Iran's bank regarding successful implementation of E-banking; this research has been tried to give comprehensive summary of indexes or sub-variables of literature which were pointed out in more than 30 foreign and domestic researches, summarized and classified in the form of tri-radiate model (conceptual framework of research). Therefore, it can be said that independent variables of the research include co-structural, content and context factors. We can refer to successful implementation of E-banking as a dependent variable. According to Table 1, factors affecting successful implementation of E-banking are divided into three co-structural, content and context dimensions and each of these dimensions are included different factors based on their definitions.
model; factors affecting successful implementation of e-banking in Iran's
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Research methodology: In terms of its goal this is an application research and regarding the nature and data collection method, it is a survey-descriptive and correlation.
Instrument: Questionnaire and interview have been used in order to study and adjust factors obtained through research literature. For measuring responders view point about factors affecting successful implementation of e-banking, designed 24 items using Likert 5-point ranking spectrum (ordinal) which rated from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Some questions were put at the section 2 of the questionnaires in order to obtain some descriptive information about responding individuals and the rate their bank use e-banking. The questionnaires with research model were given in 15 of e-banking experts (including those who are responsible to e-banking affairs at banks, governmental organizations and college masters) after readying and were confirmed by them after some partial displacements in effective factors classifying and simplifying some questions.
Validity and reliability: At the first step the questionnaire e-mailed 11 banks (17 individuals) which were in different levels considering implementation of e-banking by using of concurrent validity and ambiguous questions were edited at the next edition of questionnaire. Cronbach α correlation were used for evaluation of reliability of the questionnaire through using 13-person (9 banks) preliminary sample (returned questionnaire). Reliability all over the questionnaire was 0.89 and for co-structural, content and context factors was 0.85, 0.94 and 0.88, respectively.
Data analyzing procedure: Chi-square test (for testing statistical hypotheses)
and Friedman analysis of variance test (for ranking dimensions of co-structural,
content and context factors) was used for data analysis procedure (Azar
and Momeni, 2001). The results obtained at 0.05 α level in this research.
Statistical population: Research statistical population has been made
by experts and managers of IT and e-banking in banks of Iran; but because of
their expansion they were restricted to experts of Pasargad bank branches (N
= 318 bank), the most advanced bank at the field of e-banking. Applying simple
random method, questionnaires e-mailed to 103 Pasargad bank (Value derived through
computing formula mentioned by Azar and Momeni (2001),
was 88 at least) branches throughout the country at winter 2009 that 90 of them
Outcomes of study characterized that 81.1% of the responders are man and 18.9% of them are woman. According to Fig. 1, surveying the education level of responders demonstrates that most of responders hold bachelor degree. Also surveying age of responders demonstrates that their mean age is 34.89 (Fig. 2).
The questionnaire outcomes of study manifests that majority of the responders had less than 10 years work experience in the banking (Fig. 3).
The results of data analysis for testing statistical hypotheses presented in Table 2 demonstrates that the amount of testing statistics is more than critical value in all three hypotheses.
level of responders
Test of first hypothesis: The results obtained through using Chi-square
test demonstrate that testing statistic for the first hypothesis is 37.089,
shows a significant difference in critical value, i.e., 28.86. Therefore, the
first hypothesis is supported and at confidence level of 95% it can be claimed
that the null hypothesis accepted, in other word There is a meaningful relation
between co-structural factors and successful implementation of e-banking in
Iran's banking system (Table 2).
Test of second hypothesis: Considering results obtained in the Table 2 by using Chi-Square test, testing statistic for the second hypothesis 45.444, is more than critical value, i.e., 33.92. Therefore, the second hypothesis is supported, too and at confidence level of 95% it can be claimed that the null hypothesis accepted, in other word There is a meaningful relation between content factors and successful implementation of e-banking in Iran's banking system (Table 2).
of responders ages
experience of responders
Test of third hypothesis: Considering results obtained by using Chi-square
test in the Table 2, testing statistic for the second hypothesis
is 44.000 and since it is more than critical value, i.e., 42.55, therefore,
the third hypothesis is supported like the two others and at confidence level
of 95% it can be claimed that the null hypothesis accepted, in other word There
is a meaningful relation between Contextual factors and successful implementation
of e-banking in Iran's banking system (Table 2).
Considering Table 2 using Friedman analysis of variance test demonstrate that from the highest to the lowest, co-structural, context and content factors occupy ranks one to three, respectively, in the case of effectiveness intensity on successful implementation of e-banking in Iran's banking system.
Ranking of factors indexes: In this part, more minor factors (indexes)
including each factor are ranked by using Friedman analysis of variance test.
According to Table 3, in ranking of co-structural factor indexes, following indexes occupy the first three ranks of the dimension: (1) Transforming internal foundations to be effective and integrated in order to provide each customer with unique offering (2) financial sources for investing in E-banking infra-structures and (3) telecommunication, software, hardware and technical infra-structures.
In ranking of content factor indexes, following barriers occupy the first three ranks of the dimension: (1) A user-friendly web-interface and appropriate promotion, (2) efficient and very quick customer service and (3) the data gathered about the customer with any interaction, for good understanding needs and wants of customers (Table 4).
Also in ranking of contextual factor indexes, following indexes constitute the most important three ranks of the dimension: (1) Strategic aiming and movement toward E-banking in country, (2) perceived usefulness by customer (customer awareness) and (3) convenience and customer accessibility to web based services (e.g., computer, high speed internet etc.) (Table 5).
stages of statistical testing of research hypotheses and their ranking
of co-structural effective indexes
of content effective indexes
of context effective indexes
We conducted a surveying study to get insights into relationships between co-stuctural, content, context factors and the successful implementation of e-banking and found that there is a meaningful relation between these tree factors and successful implementation of e-banking in Iran's banking system.
Each phenomenon should provide some non-alive and physical conditions and elements in order to reach its goals. Co-structural dimension of e-banking is one of the main tools in helping the bank for its implementation. It is evident that implementing of e-banking will not be possible without creating non-human and material factors and substructures. Therefore, existence of infra-structures such as financial sources, security, Transforming foundations and etc. makes it necessary that these infra-structures and systems be in correspondence with methods and different kinds of intra-organizational systems. As a result, strength of co-structural factors as one of the main e-banking successful implementation was expected. Acceptance of the first hypothesis of this research is an evidence for the above-mentioned matters.
Although, e-banking implementation is not possible in case of lack of co-structural and physical factors of the bank, it can be claimed that human is the reason for evolution and advancement of all materials. A creature with different views, character, values, needs and cultures and each of them find different solution for fulfilling their different needs. This is human and its relationships in the bank joining with behavioral norms, unofficial communications and special patterns constitute the main content of intra and extra bank. Therefore, support of head management, knowledge of staff, efficient customer services and etc. can be regarded as serious factors in E-banking implementations. This is the reason for confirmation of content factors hypothesis.
If co-structural variables are supposed as independent variables and content variables as dependant ones, the context variables will be regarded as mediatory ones. And if content variables are supposed as independent ones and co-structural variables as dependent variables, context variables will constitute hidden variables. In both cases, these variables will be regarded as extra organizational variables. This dimension will not only results in survival and growth of the other two dimensions but also creates these two dimensions in the organization. Therefore, factors such as coordination with the other banks, technological environment, customer accessibility to web based services and etc., should be considered for successful implementing of e-banking. As it seems these factors lead to confirmation of context factors in this study.
A review on research literature and studies done in the field of this research
makes, it clear that most researchers have carried out case-by-case study in
order to find independent variables of the research and finally have presented
a list of e-banking implementation factors which constitutes the main fundamentals
of this study. Some researcher examine only one dimention of E-banking success
factors e.g., Mahmood et al. (2006) investigated
only organizational success factors in E-banking and extracted some indexes;
or Yiu et al. (2007) tried to make sense of Internet
Banking in Hong Kong from angle the influences of perceived usefulness, perceived
ease of use, perceived risk and personal innovativeness in information technology
(Technology Acceptance Model). Technology acceptance model are used frequently
to exploring E-banking usability by researchers.
Moreover, it seems that classifying of scholars who have studied the set of
success factors in the form of multiply categories, does not hold required comprehensiveness
and makes it impossible to put most variables in these categories. for example
Elissar et al. (2009) offered a conceptual model of the adoption
of E-banking involved organizational variables, strategic variables and structural
variables. We believe Tri-radiate Model is more flexible than this model. Maybe
most comprehensive research in this field is accomplished by Stamoulis
(2000), suggest an internet commerce market structure model charts the Internet
commerce market, by categorizing the role that they various participants, including
banks, play in this market (Technology providers, content providers, context
providers and Enablers). It is possible to concord content providers with content
dimension and context Providers with context dimension. However in our research
co-structural dimension include most broader factors, technology providers have
been studied in this frame, but Enablers didn't offer as independent dimention
in this research and it's indexes investigated under three dimensions.
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
It is widely believed that the impact of e-baking enables banks to provide
an inexpensive and direct way of exchanging information and to sell or buy products
and services. Recognizing the advantages of e-banking, banks have early and
aggressively moved offerings to the e-banking. This study has been tried to
give comprehensive complex of effective factors by research literature; summarized
and classified factors belike affecting successful implementation of e-banking
in the form of tri-radiate Model and these examined on successful banks of Iran
implementing e-banking. The findings demonstrate that three main dimensions
of co-structural, context and content factors lead to successful implementation
of e-banking in Iran's banking system, respectively.
Implementation of e-banking require the installation of specific telecommunication networks or application software, which can be costly and lack user accessibility and flexibility. In ranking of co-structural factor indexes, following indexes occupy the first three ranks of the dimension: (1) Transforming internal foundations to be effective and integrated in order to provide each customer with unique offerings, (2) financial sources for investing in e-banking infra-structures and (3) telecommunication, software, hardware and technical infra-structures.
In implementation of e-banking, human should not be regarded as a non-alive thing on whom we have dominance and its behavior can be affected through using of physical rules. Banks must be aware which human aspects are important in E-banking implementation. In ranking of content factor indexes, following barriers occupy the first three ranks of the dimension: (1) A user-friendly web-interface and appropriate promotion (2) efficient and very quick customer service and (3) the data gathered about the customer with any interaction, for good understanding needs and wants of customers.
Environmental variables will change co-structural and content factors, willingly or unwillingly. Being aware of external variables affect e-banking Implementation is important. In ranking of contextual factor indexes, following indexes constitute the most important three ranks of the dimension: (1) Strategic aiming and movement toward e-banking in country, (2) perceived usefulness by customer (customer awareness) and (3) convenience and customer accessibility to web based services (e.g., computer, high speed internet etc.).
Considering results, taking co-structural factor as the most important factor affecting successful implementation of e-banking in Iran's banking system into account, it is recommended to related organizations that pay more attention to this effective and try on improving them.
Al-Hajri, S., 2008. The adoption of E-Banking: The case of omani banks. Int. Rev. Business Res. Papers, 4: 120-128.
Direct Link |
Azar, A. and M. Momeni, 2001. Statistics and its Application in Management. SMT Publication, Iran, Tehran, ISBN: 964-459-274-3, pp: 392.
Bahramian, Y., 2003. A short perusal for e-banking birth in Iran. J. Bank Va Eghtesad, 50: 52-53.
Boudreau, M.C. and D. Robey, 2005. Enacting integrated information technology: A human agency perspective. Org. Sci., 16: 3-18.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Cooper, V., S.H. Lichtenstein and R. Smith, 2009. Successful web-based IT support services: service provider perceptions of stakeholder-oriented challenges. Int. J. E-Services Mob. Appl., 1: 1-20.
Direct Link |
Crede, A., 1999. Electronic Commerce and Banking Industry: The Requirement and Opportunities for New Payment System Using the Internet. Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, pp: 27.
Damanpour, F., 1987. The adoption of technological, administrative and ancillary innovations: Impact of organizational factors. J. Manage., 13: 675-688.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Daniel, E. and C. Storey, 1997. On-line banking: Strategic and management challenges. Long Rang Plann., 30: 890-898.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Darch, H. and T. Lucas, 2002. Training as an E-Commerce enabler. J. Workplace Learning, 14: 148-155.
Dejpasand, F., 2006. Cash electronic transmission and E-banking. Tehran, Commerce Ministry of Publication, pp: 178-209. http://prd.moc.gov.ir/data.asp?address=Entesharat/Amar.asp.
Eid, R., M. Truman and A.M. Ahmed, 2002. A Cross industry review of B2B critical success factors. Internet Res., 12: 110-123.
El Sawy, O.A., A. Malhotra, S. Gosain and K.M. Young, 1999. IT-intensive value innovation in the electronic economy: Insights from marshall industries. MIS Q., 23: 305-335.
Direct Link |
Elissar, T., D. Naoufel and T. Roy, 2009. The adoption of E-banking by lebanese banks: success and critical factors. Int. J. E-Services Mobile Appli., 1: 67-93.
Direct Link |
Enos, L., 2001. Report: Critical errors in online banking. E-Commerce Times. http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/8867.html.
Ferguson, R.W., 2000. Information technology in banking and supervision. At the Financial Services Conference, Speech, Oct. 20. http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2000/20001020.htm.
Franco, S.C. and T. Klein, 1999. Online banking report, Piper Jaffray equity research. http://www.piperjaffray.com/home.aspx.
Gwebu, K.L. and J. Wang, 2007. The role of organizational, environmental and human factors in e-learning diffusion. Int. J. Web-Based Learning Teaching Technol., 2: 59-78.
Direct Link |
Information and Communication Technology News Agency, 2008. Investigating the rate of E-banking usability in Iran. http://www.ictna.ir/report/archives/016012.html.
Jayawardhena, C. and P. Foley, 2000. Changes in the banking sector: The case of internet banking in the UK. Internet Res. Electr. Network. Appl. Policy, 10: 19-30.
Direct Link |
Kannabiran, G. and P.C. Narayan, 2005. Deploying internet banking and e-commerce-case study of a private-sector bank in India. Inform. Technol. Dev., 11: 363-379.
Kehzadi, N., 2002. E-Banking: prerequisites, limitations and its implementing methods in Iran. Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference of Monetary and Financial Policies, Tehran, April 2002, Monetary and Banking Academy, pp: 343-365.
King, S.F. and J. Liou, 2004. A framework for Internet channel evaluation. J. Inform. Manage., 24: 473-488.
Direct Link |
Kuzic, J., J. Fisher and A. Scollary, 2002. Electronic commerce benefits, challenges and success factors in the australian banking and finance industry. Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on Information Systems, Jun. 6-8, Gdansk, Poland, pp: 1607-1616.
Liao, Z. and M.T. Cheung, 2002. Internet-based e-banking and consumer attitudes: An empirical study. Infom. Manage., 39: 283-295.
Luštšik, O., 2004. Can E-banking services be profitable?. University of Tartu, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 30, pp: 3-38. http://ideas.repec.org/p/mtk/febawb/30.html.
Mahmood, H.S., S. Khan and X.U. Mark, 2006. A survey of critical success factors in e-banking. http://www.iseing.org/emcis/EMCIS2005/pdfs/18.pdf.
Mahmood, H.S., W. Ahmed, M. Meckel and M.A. Shah, 2008. Organisational barriers in e-Banking: A case from UK banking industry. Proceedings of the 7th Annual ISOnEworld Conference, Jun. 2-4, Las Vegas, NV. www.isoneworld.org.
Mirzaei, H. and M. Amiri, 2002. Developing a three dimensional model for analysis of philosophical bases and fundamental substructures of management theories. Manage. Knowledge, 15: 3-21.
Mirzaei, H., 1998. Toward a conceptual scheme for verification and analisys of effective effective factors in work ethics and social dicipline in organization. Proceedings of the 2th Conference on Investigating Methods of Conscience and Social Discipline Implementation, May 2-4, Tehran, Islamic Azad University, pp: 305-329.
Orr, B., 2004. E-banking job one: Give customers a good ride. ABA Bank. J., 96: 56-57.
Direct Link |
Rao, S.S., G. Metts and C.A.M. Monge, 2003. Electronic commerce development in small and medium sized enterprises: A stage model and its implications. Bus. Proc. Manage. J., 9: 11-32.
Regan, K. and N. Macaluso, 2000. Report: Consumers cool to net banking. E-Commerce Times, October 3, 2000. http://www.linuxinsider.com/story/4449.html?wlc=1249845342.
Riggins, F.J., 1999. A framework for identifying web-based electronic commerce opportunities. J. Org. Comput. Electronic Commerce, 9: 297-310.
Sachs, J.D., 2000. Readiness for the Networked World : A Guide for Developing Countries. Center for International Development at Harvard University, Cambridge, pp: 62-85.
Sarlak, M.A. and H. Mirzaei, 2005. A review of organizational epistemology: Evolution process schools and management applications. Peyke Noor J. Q. Payame Noor Univ., Manage., 3: 21-35.
Sarlak, M.A., A.A. Hastiani, L.F. Dehkordi and A. Ghorbani, 2009. Investigating on Electronic commerce acceptance barriers in dried fruits exporting companies of Iran. World Applied Sci. J., 6: 818-824.
Direct Link |
Sarrafizadeh, A., 2005. IT in Organization. Mir Publication, Tehran, pp: 82-83.
Sotudeh, S.M., 2003. E-Banking: Success ways challenges and threats. Bank Magazine, 14: 27-31.
Stamoulis, D.S., 2000. How banks fit in an Internet commerce business activities model. J. Internet Bank. Commerce, 5: 1-1.
Direct Link |
Storey, A., J.B. Thompson, A. Bokma and J. Bradnum, 2000. An evaluation of UK and USA online banking and web sites. Proceedings of the Association for Information Systems 2000 Americas Conference on Information Systems, August 10-13, 2000, Long Beach, California, pp: 723-728.
Turban, E., J. Lee, D. King and H.M. Chung, 2008. Electronic Commerce: a Managerial Perspective. 5th Edn., Prentice Hall, London, UK, ISBN-10: 0132243318.
Vinnem, J.E. and J.P. Liyanage, 2008. Human-Technical interface of collision risk under dynamic conditions: An exploratory learning case from the north sea. Int. J. Technol. Human Interaction, IGI Publi., 4: 35-47.
Direct Link |
Wallman, S., 1999. The Information Technology Revolution and its Impact of Regulation and Regulatiory Structure. In: Booking-Wharton Papers on Financial Services, Litan, R.E. and A.M. Santomero (Eds.). 1st Edn., Brookings Institution Press, USA., ISBN-13: 9780815752875, pp: 207-574.
Yiu, C.S., K. Grant and D. Edgar, 2007. Factors affecting the adoption of internet banking in Hong Kong - implications for the banking sector. Int. J. Inform. Manage., 27: 336-351.
Yousafzai, S.Y., J.G. Pallister and G.R. Foxall, 2005. Strategies for building and communicating trust in electronic banking: A field experiment. Psychol. Market., 22: 181-202.