What is Safeguards? One definition is knowing where and how much special nuclear material (U, Pu) is in a facility. Another definition is the ability to detect the movement of nuclear material to locations where it should not be, that is, the ability to detect a diversion, for which, timeliness is important in updating material inventories and material balance (IAEA Safeguards, 1980). Each state shall establish and maintain a system of accounting for and control of all nuclear materials subject to safeguards under agreements between the state and the agency (Massendari and Jalouneix, 2002; Vidal et al., 2003).
The purpose of this work, based on IAEA code 10, is to implement a computer tool for safeguards operators, to fulfill requirements of the SSAC in all peaceful nuclear activities in a state (IAEA, 2003). SARS is a PC-based application that is being developed as part of the national SSAC for Material control and accountability.
This program is developed using Borland Delphi Object Oriented programming language with database management system (Ewing et al., 1999) and runs well under Microsoft Windows XP. Before using the program for the first time, it needs to be installed by executing the set-up wizard and following instructions till finish. Direct access icon on the desk will be created automatically in addition to the program directory. The main SARS features are:
Physical inventory accounting
||Nuclear material flow sheet in normal operation
item transfers within and between MBA's and KMP's
between different applications
Nuclear reactor, from the safeguards point of view, is considered as a Material Balance Area (MBA) with key measurement points, flow KMP 1,2,3.. and inventory KMP A,B,C.. as shown below in Fig. 1.
CODE 10 OF SUBSIDIARY ARRANGEMENTS
This code is the general part of subsidiary arrangements in a safeguards agreement
it defines the content, the format and the structure of accounting reports provided
by the state to the Agency for each material balance area, an Inventory Change
Report (ICR) showing all changes in the inventory of nuclear material, a Material
Balance Report (MBR) showing the material balance based on a physical inventory
of nuclear material actually present in the material balance area and a Physical
Inventory Listing (PIL) which specify, separately, identification and batch
data for each batch of nuclear material Fig. 2.
||IAEA processing of accounting reports
It can also add concise notes describing, as specified in the subsidiary Arrangements,
any event, or an explanation text. All report must contain identification of
the country by one or two characters, the facility code by three characters
beginning by country code, the material area by four characters beginning by
country code and the report type with number, period and operator name, in addition
to the inventory and any previous modifications. The other standard codes concerning
material type (element and isotope code Fig. 9), measurement
basis and material description (physical form Fig. 10, chemical
form containment, irradiation status and quality).
The processing of nuclear material accounting reports at the IAEA is resumed below:
receipt to the sender
summary of data received
statements to states
The system consists of a database foundation with additional sub-programs. For user interface, nine light bottoms are mouse drag and click activated. Four of them are principals, initialization, transactions, records and reports (Fig. 3).
Initialization: At the beginning of a new material balance period, the initialization screen (Fig. 4), allows the user asked to enter the general information as the country code, the facility code, the operator name, the initialization date and the MBA code. Inside the MBA, flow and inventory KMP's are also required. As long as, all facilities, MBA's and KMP's are given, the user is asked to save/cancel or close window.
Transactions: Once the system has been initialized, it is ready to start
nuclear material transactions (Kempf and Bieber, 1991), (Fig.
5), by first filling up database tables for initially received nuclear materials,
the user choose the occurring transaction, for which is asked either to print,
save, cancel, close or to see the fuel assemblies history card FAHC. Ten transactions
are estimated to take place SARS has the capability to handle single or multiple
item movements (transactions) within an MBA (intra-MBA transaction) or between
MBAs (inter-MBA transaction). For a multiple item movement, the user can either
check off which items to move. For each transaction, the movement is performed
immediately and the physical inventory and historical data tables are updated.
The figure bellow (Fig. 6) shows the material movements and
automatically creates, prepares, updates and generates Records and Reports.
||Data initialization screen
||Possible nuclear material transactions screen
||Nuclear material movements and accounting documentation for
each (Kempf and Bieber, 1991)
Records: The SARS maintain a system of accounting and operating records for each MBA (Fig. 7, 8). The accounting records is to reflect:
inventory changes, so as to permit a determination of the book inventory
at any time
measurement results that are used for determination of the physical inventory
adjustments and correction that have been made in respect of inventory
changes, book inventories and physical inventories
One of the following keywords or their codes (Fig. 9) should be used in one of column of ICRs in order to indicate the type of inventory change.
In addition, another column (ICRs) should be used to describe the nuclear material by the use of four characters which consist of one alphabetic or numeric character:
(1): Physical form (Fig. 10)
(2): Chemical form
(4): Irradiation status and quality
Reports: The principal task of the SARS is printing out the required IAEA safeguards reports according to the formats specified in code 10. Currently, SARS can generate the following reports: Inventory Change Reports (ICR), Physical Inventory Listing (PIL Fig. 13) and Material Balance Reports (MBR Fig. 14), eventually concise notes and any custom reports added by the facility. The Fig. 12 explaining specific entries in reports.
Each MBA, report or entry in a report may be referred to be a concise note to explain or elaborate on the information provided in the report. A concise note is frequently used to provide the recipients name for shipment, the effective burn-up for report of nuclear production and nuclear loss, explanation of accidental gain/loss, or the reason for correction (Fig. 12).
F.A.H.C: One important feature of (SARS) is the Fuel Assembly Historical Card (Fig. 15, 16) display since receipt of fresh fuel until its expedition passing through intermediates transactions such as its update during his movement to reactor core, its irradiation within reactor core and its adjustment in its expedition movement.
||Fuel assembly historical card screen
This program has been designed to be highly flexible and configurable and to support a wide range of facility requirements. It is an easy to use and efficient way to keep records and prepare national and IAEA reports. The main focus of this tool has been reached by the implementation of main parts of the program, such as different transactions, records and producing different reports. It remains more work to do in order to achieve better degree of quality by building a database for all controlled nuclear materials.
Algerian specialists are testing and evaluating this program against actual and future needs in order to produce a good version of this program which can be used by the facilities in routine operation.