Improving technology has brought great easiness together in every field
from military to industry, from health to education. Especially the development
and prevalence of Computer Technology and usability for multi purpose
aims provide not only speed and economy but also visual and sound opportunity.
Computer technology, which started with abacus and now has come to core
duo processors, is made be a great need even at home from now on (Demirci,
These technological developments and technological products being brought
with them forced Traditional Education (TI) systems to be changed and
add new ones to means and tools used (Anonim, 1997). It is possible to
follow and keep up with the time if only raising the effect of educational
system. Because our time is technology time, it is needed to add technological
opportunities into it and to use technology. Educational materials as
assistant materials are among the tools to make instruction more beneficial,
lasting and pleasurable. Computers and instructional materials being used
as both tool and method are effective for students on increasing the concentration
on the course, understanding lesson, synthesizing and improving positive
thoughts for the course. Instructional Materials make the topic clearer
and more lasting by making the abstract topics concrete (Çepni
et al., 2004; Demirel, 2004). So especially for teaching abstract
concepts like in the Science Education course, it is very important to
use visual materials for students to understand the lesson better and
improving positive attitude towards the lesson.
In these days, it is seen that visual materials are being used in every
field and students are mostly in the effect of technological tools like
computer and television. As a result of supporting instructional materials
with different sounds, images and simulations, more lasting, pleasurable
and effective learning occurs. The learning outcomes is the result of
seeing with 83%, hearing with 11%, smelling with 3, 5%, touching with
1, 5% and tasting with 1% (Demirel, 2004; Demirel and Yagci, 2006). People`s
learning is resulted from seeing with 75%, hearing with 13%, smelling
with 6%, touching with 3% and tasting with 3% (Küçükahmet,
Experimental evidences are found that verbal-only method isn`t always
working so well. Increasing visual content makes instruction lasting and
effective when principles of how people learn are taken in to account
According to Çilenti and Kinder, learning is a result of reading
with 10%, hearing with 20%, seeing with 30%, both seeing and hearing with
50%, talking about with 70% and both doing and talking about with 90%
for a fixed time (gÔimgÕek, 2002; Demirel, 2004; Yalin, 2006).
This shows that instructional materials supported by sound and animations
are more effective on the students` learning, perception and synthesizing.
The most feelings which are included in the instructional activity does
mean the fastest and best learning. Learning becomes so lasting. The best
learning is learning by doing and living by himself or herself (Küçükahmet,
2001; Demirel, 2004; Yigit, 2004).
Therefore we have to develop Science Lessons as to be the lessons getting
students` interest and in this way providing permanent learning, emphasizing
the nature of Science and being supported by visual instructional materials
and sound to accelerate learning.
The basic aim of the instructional research is to find how to form instructional
environment providing upper level and permanent learning in a short time
and with a less expense and endeavour (Yigit and Akdeniz, 2003). The usage
of computers in classrooms is one of the popular topics recently and the
ratio of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and the usage of computers
in classroom have been rising. At the same time, completed researches
haven`t been able to show consistent results about If CAI is beneficial
or not (Bayraktar, 2001).
Living styles of the people not only affect the learning styles and but
also determine how they will be and improve them. Therefore educational
and instructional materials offering more visual content as instructional
opportunity are needed as to be presented in order to teach today`s people
having been bombarded with visual information and always living visually
(Çepni et al., 2004).
Today`s students are growing with visual tools like television, video,
computer and internet. It is not possible to get these students` interest
by TI methods used in the past. Technological developments have resulted
in a big gap between the ways of teaching methods at school and of getting
information in society in the last quarter of 20th century. Because most
of the students get the information via visual content sources like computers
and televisions, which are used in daily life very much, it is made difficult
to teach something to students by traditional methods (Çepni et
al., 2004; London, 2005).
Nowadays, it has been seen that visual materials are used everywhere
and students are in the effect of technological tools like television
and computers. As a result of supporting instructional materials with
different voice, image and animations, more permanent, pleasurable and
effective learning occurs (Demirel, 2004; Demirel and Yagci, 2006).
Young children are more influenced by visual stimulus than auditory ones
(Halis, 2002). This situation makes it more difficult to get children`s
interest and to give permanent knowledge at school without using visual
or auditory content. CAI is a usable way to make instruction more interesting
and to make the learnt knowledge permanent.
In the World and in Turkey, a lot of researches have been done about
CAI. These researches resulted in very different results. Some of the
researches found CAI as useful for students` development (Cotton, 1991;
Morse, 1991; Child, 1995; Brophy, 1999; ÇekbagÕ et al.,
2003; Yenice, 2003; Carter, 2004; Moodly, 2004; Preciado, 2004; Brooks,
2005; Bryan, 2006; Çepni et al., 2006; Wilder, 2006; Liao,
2007). Some other researches found no significant difference between CAI
and TI (Alacapinar, 2003).
Research findings show that the use of computers in Science and Math
courses as a tool towards application makes the lessons more interesting
and encouraging and so makes the more complex Science concepts be learnt
permanently and in an effective way (Halis, 2002).
If it is taken into account that students especially at the ages of primary
school have difficulty in learning abstract concepts, it is important
to make these concepts concrete and to present them sprightly. For this,
educational technologies, especially computers, play an important role
(Akpinar et al., 2005).
The developments in the technology bring new learning and teaching opportunities
with itself. Today, computers proved their position for education and
instruction in developed countries. Now and on people are not searching
If the computers are effective for educational and instructional activities,
but searching how to use computers more effectively (Yakar, 2005).
There is still no agreement on effectiveness of the computers and virtual
environments on instructional activities, but research finding showed
that virtual classes have 20% higher scores than traditional classes (Schutte,
Humans have always observed environment from its existence up to now
and questioned about both their beings and occurrence of events around
with the questions like what, why and how (Çepni et al.,
2004). One of the objectives of Science Education is to make students
be aware of concepts related to natural events and of relationships between
concepts (Ünal and Ergin, 2006).
Science lesson is a natural science. It is an area that provides people
interpretation and understanding about environment in which they live.
Science Education gives students creative thinking ability. It helps them
know and love the environment. Creative power of students increases. Our
era is technology age. Science Education makes students obtain positive
attitude towards technology (Hançer et al., 2003).
It is very important that gaining positive attitude and behaviors towards
science which was appeared as a result of observations of nature and natural
realities and teaching it effectively and consciously (Bozdogan and Yalçin,
CAI is the use of computers in educational and instructional activities.
Computers, which are described as the most effective and personal learning
tool, are used in order to keep in with technology and to be in time with
the today`s standards (Yenice, 2003).
The first use of computers in Educational area started with the use of
MARK and ENIAC in 1940s. First computers were used as a problem solving
machine especially for science and engineering (Carter, 2004).
The main purpose of the educational researches is to find how to form
instructional environments which provide permanent and upper level learning
with less expense and endeavor in a short time (Yigit and Akdeniz, 2003).
The purpose of this study is to expose the effect of instructing Force
and Pressure topics, which are ones of physics topics in 7th grade Science
Lesson, in a computer supported way on the academic science scores.
In this study, pre-test and post-test of subject test including Force
and Pressure topics were applied to 7th grade students.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This research is a quantitative and experimental study with the real
experiment model in the form of controlled pre-test and post-test model.
In this research, there are two groups as experiment group, which follow
the lesson with CAI and control group, which follow the lesson with Traditional
The universe of this study is 7th grade students in the 2nd central region
of Denizli in 2006-2007 Academic year. The sample of this research is
253 students at Atatürk Primary school in Central Denizli.
Classes which will follow the course with CAI are chosen as four classes
according to suitability of the course times with the course schedule
of Science laboratory having a computer. Here it is assumed that science
teachers are distributed to classes randomly.
In this study, science lesson is taught by classes` own science teacher
in order not to make researcher`s prejudice effect the study. Another
assumption here is that the effect, which is originating from personal
properties of teachers on students` achievement, is not so great to affect
A data questionnaire is developed in order to get information about students`
educational and instructional conditions outside the school, about their
computer possibilities and about their computer using levels and to provide
balance between groups. This questionnaire about Students` personal data
and family states is applied with the post test.
In this research, a test is developed by picking up suitable multiple
choice questions according to course content from different kinds of resources
in order to measure the students` subject knowledge level. This test is
prepared as 25 questions after being undergone item and reliability analysis.
This improved science subject test is applied to both groups as pre-test
and post-test applications.
In this research, 3 different programs prepared for CAI are used. These
are Mobides CAI system, Vitamin Educational program and an educational
program developed by MS FrontPage program.
Students` personal and family data are investigated in order to balance
the groups. After balancing them, paired and unpaired groups t tests are
done in order to determine If there is a difference in pre-test and post-test
applications between and in groups which are defined as Experiment and
Used methodology in this research is to compare CAI and TI on the students`
academic achievement for 7th grade Science lesson. In this study, the
groups in which students following the course are our independent variables.
Students` academic achievement is our dependent variables based on our
A lot of researches have been done in Turkey and abroad in order to investigate
the efficacy of CAI with different student groups with different ability
and number. CAI both increases motivations towards learning and develops
the academic achievement at the courses according to general opinion which
is the result of these researches. According to research findings in this
area, CAI is more effective in some researches but it has the same efficacy
for some others and is less effective for some others.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In this study there are 129 girl students with 51% and 124 boy students
with 49%. Control group consists of 74 girl students with 53% and 65 boy
students with 47%. Experiment group consists of 55 girl students with
48% and 59 boy students with 52%.
Table 1 shows the pre-test application of science subject test. At the
beginning, control and experiment groups have the same achievement scores.
In order to understand If the difference between the scores of the groups
is significant or not, unpaired t-test for 2 unpaired group is performed
and p-value is found as 0.20.
When we look into t-test results of experiment and control groups` subject
test scores for the means of unpaired samples, there is no statistically
significant difference between group scores of subject test at 0.05 significance
level. That means, at the beginning of the course, control and experiment
groups students are nearly almost the same with each other.
According to this result (Table 2), control and experiment groups do
not have the same science subject test scores at the end of the course.
In order to understand whether the difference between the group scores
is significant or not, unpaired t-test between 2 different groups is performed
and p-value is found as 0.00.
||Pre-test scores of science subject test
||Post-test scores of science subject test
||Difference scores of pre-test and post-test scores of science subject
||Pre-test and post-test scores of science subject test
When experiment and control groups` subject test scores are looked into
for unpaired sampled t-test, there is a statistically significant difference
between group scores of subject test at 0.05 significance level. That means,
at the end of the lesson, control and experiment group students` achievement
levels are different from each other.
Table 3 show that at the end of the application experiment and control
groups do not the same gain level. In order to investigate the significance
of these difference scores between the groups, unpaired t-test for 2 independent
groups means is performed and p-value is found as 0.00.
According to Fig. 1, slope of the gain level of experiment
group scores is higher than control ones. Figure 1 show
that experiment group`s gain level is greater than control group`s gain
Unpaired t-test for independent groups` means is performed with the difference
of pre-test and post-test scores taken by control and experiment groups
from the subject test. The significance level of the gain level difference
of the groups shows that the gain levels aren`t the same with each other
with the significance of 0.00 at the significance level of 0.05 and that
there is a significant difference in the favor of experiment group. That
means, after the course the achievement levels of the student groups separated
as control and experiment are different from each other in the favor of
Findings have been gotten as a result of research is in accordance with
a lot of research finding which were performed before (Demircioglu and
Geban, 1996; Akçay et al., 2003; Carter, 2004; Karamustafaoglu
et al., 2005; Çepni et al., 2006; Wilder, 2006).
The finding from the study shows a significant difference between pre-test
and post-test scores at Science Subject Test for both control and experiment
groups. This shows that both TI and CAI are effective on the academic
achievement of students at Science Lesson.
Another result from this study is, there were no significant difference
between groups for the pre-test application scores but there is a significant
difference between post-test scores of the groups in favor of experiment
one. Also it is shown that there is a significant difference between the
difference scores of both groups` pre-test and post-test scores for experiment
group. So CAI is more effective than TI on the academic achievement levels.
When we compare the groups` average scores, difference between the gain
levels is almost nearly two times higher for experiment group.
CAI will be effective for eliminating the misconceptions by technological
material with well prepared pedagogical and scientific content. According
to Ivowi (1984), the main causes of misconceptions in students can be
traced to teachers and some available textbooks.
As a result;
||CAI affects the students` knowledge level in a positive way. Increasing
the CAI opportunities in the classrooms will increase the academic
achievement of students.
||An informative education should be given to teachers about the properties
of CAI, computers and the use of computer in order to make use of
CAI well. It is not possible to make CAI successful with teachers
not having plentiful knowledge about computers and CAI.
||It is possible to show the dangerous Science experiments easily
and a jillion times with CAI. It should be used a software developed
||It must be teamwork to prepare Instructional Software. Only one
researcher can develop software alone but this software will be lack
with some properties. If the characteristics of intellect are taken
in to account, a researcher develops software which is convenient
to own intellect.
||Simulations are the most effective and interesting CAI programs.
It is possible to make application more economically and effectively
with simulations for both laboratory and course.
||Suitability of the programs to students` feature, visual properties
of the programs and the ability of giving motivations to students
must be taken in to account while CAI tools and materials are being
The work was supported by 2007, FBE 018, BAP, Pamukkale University.