Foot and Mouth Disease-Mastitis Cascade in Dairy Cattle: A Field Study
A field study was conducted in 6 cross bred dairy cows
suffering from acute clinical mastitis preceded by FMD in all animals.
After thorough clinical and laboratory examination of the affected animals
were confirmed as the cases of clinical mastitis. Cows were diagnosed
for mastitis by clinical examination and Modified California mastitis
test, somatic cell count and cultural examination of milk. After confirmation
of disease and antibiotic sensitivity test all cows were subjected to
precise and supportive therapy. Out of 18 quarters only 2 quarters were
positive to + and one quarter to trace reaction by MCMT after the completion
of treatment (on 5th day) with enrofloxacin and melonex along with supportive
therapy. Out of 18 quarters only 3 quarters showed 2.5x105
cells mL-1 to 3.25x105 somatic cells mL-1
of milk and remaining quarters showed <2.1x105 somatic cells
mL-1 of milk. It is concluded that the result of enrofloxacin
and mammitel are considerable in the treatment of clinical mastitis.
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious, acute viral
disease of all cloven footed animals and is characterized by fever and
vesicular eruption in the mouth and on the feet and teats and it caused
the loss in the production (Radostits et al., 2000). Following
a few days of viraemia, the virus appears in the milk and saliva for upto
24 h before the appearance of vesicle in the mouth. Mammary gland is another
tissue in which persistence may take place, the FMD virus living in this
tissue for 3-7 weeks. Vesicles may occur on the teats and when the teat
orifice is involved, severe mastitis often follows. Mastitis, there is
occurrence of physical, chemical and bacteriological changes in milk and
development of pathological and inflammatory changes in the parenchyma
and glandular tissue of mammary gland. Today mastitis is stands second
to FMD as a most challenging disease in high yielding dairy animals in
India (Varshney and Mukherjee, 2002). FMD followed by mastitis is a very
rare event and scanty reports on it are available. The present study is
providing the report on post-FMD mastitis complication in cross bred dairy
cattle and treatment of mastitis affected cows.
HISTORY AND CLINICAL EXAMINATION
Six cross bred cows in 1 to 4 lactation on a private dairy farm in the
vicinity of the College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anjora,
Durg (CG), India were taken for this study. The history of swollen udder
and abnormal milk with flaks or clots and watery milk from 6 quarters
of 3 cows. All the affected cows were anorexic, weak, dehydrated along
with the history of FMD outbreak at the same farm 20 days back. As per
the owner cows were not vaccinated against FMD. Out of 6, 2 cows were
unable to stand without any manual support. All affected animals shows
the open mouth breathing, loss of appetite and drastic reduction in milk
yield (3 cows comes from 14-16 L milk per day to 2-3 L milk per day and
an other 3 cows reduce milk yield up to 4-5 L per day. In case of FMD,
lesions also occur on the teat, so through these lesions bacteria may
get the opportunity to enter into the teat and cause mastitis. On physical
examination two quarters of 2 cows were very swollen, hard and large amount
of pus inside the quarters. The milk from the affected quarters was like
custards, yellow coloration and with clots or flakes. These observations
were in accordance to the findings of Sreeramulu (1993) and Sankaram and
On clinical examination, temperature was 102.5 °F to 104 °F,
pulse 75 to 90 per min and respiration 26 to 31 per min. Indirect mastitis
test e.g., Modified California Mastitis Test (MCMT) was carried out as
per the method of Devi (1997), out of 22 quarters (2 quarters filled with
pus) of 6 cows, 18 quarters were found positive to CMT, out of which 7
quarters show + + + reaction, 5 + +, 3 + + and one trace reaction. After
proper disinfection of teat surface with 70% ethyl alcohol, 15 mL of milk
sample from each quarter`s viz. Left Fore (LF), Left Hind (LH), Right
Fore (RF) and Right Hind (RH) of all animals was collected aseptically
after squirting few streams, in sterile vials and processed within 1 h
of collection. Milk samples were presented for Somatic Cell Count (SCC)
by the method of Schalm et al. (1971), revealed that the average
SCC of MCMT positive quarters were 16.72 ± 2.16 (x105)
cells mL-1 of milk and ranges from 5x105 to 36x105
cells mL-1, while in MCMT negative quarters average SCC were
0.98 ± 0.18 (x105) cells mL-1 of milk and
ranged from 0.5x105 to 1.30x105 cells mL-1.
On isolation as per the method of Cruickshank et al. (1975), Staphylococcus
spp. and Streptococcus spp. were the chief causative agents
of mastitis. The findings were in agreements with the Sharma (2003). After
isolation and identification the bacterial isolates were subjected to
in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test by disc diffusion method (Bauer
et al., 1966). All isolates were sensitive to enrofloxacin (+ +
+ +) followed by Amoxicillin and Cloxacillin (+ + +) and oxytetracycline
(+ + +). Sharma (2000), Sahay (2000) and Prasad (2001), also showed maximum
sensitivity to enrofloxacin in cases of mastitis. No single isolate was
sensitive to penicillin.
All the affected cows were treated for 5 days with intramammary infusion
with Mammitel -10 g, one tube/quarter twice in a day, Inj Enrocin (Enrofloxacin)
at the rate of 5 mg kg-1 body weight i/m, Inj. Melonex (Meloxicam)
at the rate of 0.5 mg kg-1 body weight i/m, Inj. Belamyl -10
mL i/m and Inj. E-Care-Se 15 mL i/m (Alternate day) three shots. Owner
was advised to frequent milking (at every 3-4 h) of severely affected
quarters and try to complete removal of pus from the quarters and proper
disposal of it.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
On 7th day after treatment pus was completely stopped from all the quarters
but 2 quarters fibrosed and blind permanently. Only 2 quarters were positive
to + and one quarter to trace reaction by MCMT after the completion of
treatment (on 5th day). Only 3 quarters showed 2.5x105 cells
mL-1 to 3.25x105 somatic cells mL-1 of
milk and remaining quarters showed <2.1x105 somatic cells
mL-1 of milk. All systemic reactions disappeared after the
completion of treatment and increase the appetite of animals. The high
cure rate by enrofloxacin after intramuscular administration may be due
to the high bio-availability and high tissue concentration exceeding Minimum
Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values for most pathogens (Gatne et
al., 1997). Present treatment schedule is in agreement of Akhtar et
al. (2003) also used the enrofloxacin and 3-D vet for the treatment
of clinical mastitis, the difference is that in the present study Meloxocam
was used as anti-inflammatory agent instead of Diclofenac sodium (3-D
Vet). Meloxocam is a potent anti-inflammatory and 12 times more selectively
inhibits COX-2 than COX-1. Jones (1990) has also been reported the same
type of episode. It is concluded that the result of enrofloxacin and mammitel
are considerable in the treatment of clinical mastitis. E-Care-Se used
as immuno-potentiator to increase the functional capabilities of neutrophils,
macrophages and plasma cells. Immuno-potentiators also enhance the phagocytic
and bactericidal activity of neutrophils at mammary glands and shorten
the duration and severity of post FMD mastitis challenge (Markandeya et
al., 2005). The present findings are also in conformity of Markandeya
et al. (2005), they reported that herbal immune-potentiator coupled
with antibiotics can be used for the effective treatment of post-FMD mastitis.
The FMD virus replicates in the secretary epithelium of bovine mammary
gland. The acini and ducts in the necrotic areas contain mainly sloughed
epithelial cells, cellular debris and small number of leukocytes, which
leads to reduced milk yield in the affected animals (Jubb et al.,
Finally, it is concluded that occurrence of mastitis may be followed
by mastitis and effective treatment of mastitis with enrofloxacin and
meloxicam and supported with immuno-potentiators like vitamin E and selenium.
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