The Effect of Substituting Fishmeal Diets with Varying Quantities of Ensiled Parboiled Beniseed (Sesamum indicum) and Raw African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) on the Growth Responses and Food Utilization of the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus
A mixture of ensiled parboiled beniseed (Sesamum
indicum) and raw African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) replaced
fishmeal in the diet of Oreochromis niloticus at 0, 30, 70 and
100% test materials inclusion levels. Each dietary treatment was randomly
duplicated in tanks stocked with twenty fingerlings (2.71 ± 0.003
g) and fed three times (08:00, 14:00 and 18:00 h) to satiation for 56
days. The result revealed best live weight gain and feed utilization in
the fish fed diet D4 followed by diet D1 and D3
with the least value recorded in fish fed diet D2 level. Generally,
there was significant increase (p<0.05) in the weight gain in formulated
diets (D4) and control. The result supports the suggestion
that tilapia can be fed with mixture of ensiled parboiled beniseed and
raw African locust bean which is hoped will reduce tremendously the over
dependence on fishmeal protein and human utilization of the very scarce
to cite this article:
B.S. Audu, K.M. Adamu and S.A. Binga, 2008. The Effect of Substituting Fishmeal Diets with Varying Quantities of Ensiled Parboiled Beniseed (Sesamum indicum) and Raw African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) on the Growth Responses and Food Utilization of the Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. International Journal of Zoological Research, 4: 42-47.
The high cost and scarcity of fishmeal have prompted world wide investigation
into the ways of replacing fishmeal with less expensive foodstuff (Eyo,
1989). Lovel and Limsuwan (1982) have revealed the superiority of fishmeal
in growth performance due mainly to its nutritional composition and its
amino acid profile needed for optimum growth. However, it has been well
established that in all fish diets, irrespective of the species, protein
is the most important dietary nutrient and fish meal remain one of the
major sources of dietary protein (Kaushik, 1989).
Plant protein sources such as Soya bean and groundnut cake have had favourable
consideration as a replacement for fishmeal because of their high nutritive
value and relative low cost as reported by Jackson et al. (1982).
However, most of these plant protein sources are poor in one essential
amino acids or the other. For instance, the protein content of beniseed
was found to be rich in amino acids such as leucine, arginine and methionine
but was relatively low in lysine (Arnon, 1972; Kochhar, 1981). Thus, no
single oilseed meal can completely replace or supply the protein requirement
of tilapia (Jauncey and Ross, 1982). Tacon et al. (1983), Nandeesha
et al. (1991), Ofojekwu and Kigbu (2002) Mukhopadhyay and Ray (2005),
Abimorad et al. (2007), Sá et al. (2007) and Martinez-Llorens
et al. (2007) have reported similar work to evaluate the suitability
of replacing partially fishmeal in digestibility study. The present research
was conducted to evaluate the suitability of replacing partially and/completely
fishmeal diet with plant protein sources (Ensiled parboiled beniseed (Sesamum
indicum) and Raw African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) on
the growth response and feed utilization of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis
niloticus) under laboratory conditions.
|| Preliminary crude protein composition of the test materials
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was conducted in the undergraduate Research laboratory,
Department of Zoology, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria. A 56 day (June
to August) growth trial test was conducted with a sum total of 360 mixed
sex fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus means weight (2.71 ±
0.003) g obtained from Rock water fish farm, Rayfield, Jos, Plateau State,
Nigeria. The fingerlings twenty were stocked in each four green circular
plastic tanks with replicate measuring 48 cm diameter, 24 cm depth and
30 L capacity. Water volume was maintained at 20 L with de-chlorinated
municipal water supply. Fish were fed to satiation three times daily (08:00,
14:00 and 1800 h). After the last feeding, the tanks were cleaned up of
any unconsumed feeds and fecal matter while lost water was replaced with
dechlorinated municipal water. The temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen,
free carbon (iv) oxide were determined fortnightly (Stirling, 1985). The
water temperature was 22 ± 2 °C; pH was 6.60 ± 0.25,
while dissolved oxygen was 2.01 ± 0.30 mg L-1. The photo
period was natural and all tanks had the similar lighting condition. Fecal
matters were collected by sieving through a sieve of 400 μm mesh
size and oven dried. Pooled feces per treatment were kept for digestibility
studies. Ten fishes were randomly selected and measured bi-weekly for
weight verification to the nearest 0.1 g following method described by
Ufodike and Matty (1993) and returned into their tanks before the next
feeding. The mixed feeds ingredients were formulated into two batches.
Batch A had 200 g of raw beniseed parboiled for 5 min, cooled and introduced
into a bottle Stoppered and was allowed to stand for 7 days at 25 °C.
The sample was then sun dried on screened surgical tray. Two hundred gram
of batch B consisting of raw seeds of African locust bean were washed,
screened sun dried and grinded using ceramic mortar before been sieved
into fine powder with sieve of mesh size 400 μm.
Four diets including control were prepared (pelleted) to contain mixture
of the test ingredients and were used to substitute fishmeal at 0, 30,
70 and 100% test material inclusion resulting to 35% crude protein content
required for tilapia growth (Jauncey and Ross, 1982). The proximate composition
of the test diets and control were determined according to AOAC (1980)
procedures. 0.05 g of inert material (chromic oxide) was added to determine
protein digestibility following the methods suggested by Furukawa and
Tsukahara (1996). The percentage composition of the test diets and control
and the proximate composition of the four diets are shown in Table
1. There 3 fishes each were sacrificed for proximate analysis before
and after the experiment according to the method described by AOAC (1980).
The significance difference (p = 0.05) of the result of mean weight at
different level of treatment were tested using One way analysis of variance.
Significance difference in the data was tested with student t-test. Growth
indices, such as Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Feed Conversion Ratio, (FCR),
Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Net Protein Utilization (NPU) were analyzed
using appropriate formulae (Halver, 1989) while corrected mortality (Finney,
1971) and percentage Live Weight Gain (LWG) were also determined.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results of the proximate composition of the test diets and control
were significantly different (p<0.05) ranging from 21.45-29.50% crude
protein; 17.68-45.07% crude fat; 9.31-18.79% crude fibre; 4.42-5.91% ash;
3.34-4.27% moisture and 7.84-30.19% nitrogen free extract (Table
|| Ingredients and proximate compositions of experimental
|#Vit. A, 5,000,000.00 I. U; Vit. B, 1,000,000.00
I. U; Vit E, 20,000 mg; Vit. K3 1,000.00 mg; pantothenic
acid, 4,000.00 mg; Vit B1, 1,200.00 mg; Vit. B2,
2,400.00 mg; Vit. B6, 2,400.00 mg; Niacin 16,000.00 mg;
Biotin, 32.00 mg; Vit. B12, 10.00 mg; Folic acid, 400.00
mg; Choline chloride, 120,000.00 mg, Manganese, 40,000.00 mg; Iron,
20,000.00 mg; Zinc, 18,000.00 mg; Copper, 800.00 mg; Iodine, 620.00
mg; Cobalt, 100.00 mg; Selenium, 40.00 mg
||Growth performance of Oreochromis niloticus exposed
to the various formulated diet during the 8 weeks exposure period
|Mean ± SE value obtained from 10 fish each from
an aquarium with replicate
|| Growth and feed utilization of Tilapia Oreochromis
niloticus fed different formulated feed for 8 weeks
|#: Apparent Digestibility Coefficient, ##: Apparent
Net Protein Utilization
At the end of the exposure period 15, 45, 20 and 15% of mortalities where
recorded in D1, D2, D3 and D4 experimental
tanks respectively. However, using Abbott`s formula for corrected mortality
revealed 35.29 and 5.88% mortalities in D2 and D3 experimental
tanks only. Abbot`s formula for corrected mortality eliminates the factor
that led to mortality in the experimental control tank as it relates to
other experimental setup, respectively.
As a result of feeding the fish with the different level of formulated
diet there was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the fish weight
(Table 3) as well as feed utilization efficiency (Table
4). Growth indices such as LWG, SGR, FCR and PER did not differ significantly
(p>0.05) in the fish fed test diets and control. The Apparent Digestibility
Coefficient (ADC) values obtain were not statistically different (p>0.05)
with the control ADC (59.86 ± 0.02). (Table 4)
Similarly, Apparent Net Protein Utilization (ANPU) of different diet revealed
insignificant difference (p>0.05) as compared to the control value
(17.80 ± 0.04). The final fish moisture content revealed significance
difference (p<0.05) when compared to that of the control (Table
|| Initial and final body composition of Tilapia fed various
formulated diets for 8 weeks
|*: Nitrogen Free Extract
The temperature range in this experimental set up is under the tolerance
range for the test fish Oreochromis niloticus. The result obtained
from the preliminary analysis of the test materials showed that the parboiled
ensiled beniseed has a higher level of good quality protein (26.09%) compared
to the protein content of the un-parboiled ensiled (17.00%) at p<0.05.
The fermentation process is very essential because, it liberates more
nutrients in the form of essential amino acids such as lysine, methionine
and the production of more energy (Stainkraus, 1983). Though the fermentation
lasted for only a week, it yielded a slight increase in the crude protein
content of the un-ensiled beniseed to 1.4% and when extended, has been
reported by Arnon (1972) and Kochhar (1981) to be within the range of
12.22 and 20.25%.
Highest Specific Growth Rate (SGR) was observed in D4 (0.45
± 0.01), followed by D1 (0.37 ± 0.02) indicating
better nutrient utilization. Yengkokpam et al. (2005) also deduce
same from their findings when Catla catla fingerlings were fed
different level of corn diet. The improved growth rate observed in D4
then D1 may also be ascribed to the good feed utilization
by the experimental fish as evidenced by the recorded high values of FCR
and PER. The high crude protein, crude fat with low moisture and fiber
contents recorded in diet in D4 may be responsible for the
improved growth rate observed.
High crude fat is known to enhance energy production and hence better
growth rate. Therefore, the possible reason for D2 low performance
could be due to its high content of crude fiber. Davies (1985) reported
that higher fiber content impede fish growth.
Live Weight Growth (LWG) that follows D4 > D1 >
D3 > D2 order in this experimental setup has
been attributed to high fibre content of diet (Omoregie and Ogbemudia,
1993). However, this finding strongly accepts that deduction thus high
LWG correlates high value of fibre content of diet.
Apparent Digestibility Coefficient (ADC) is thought to be an important
tool to investigate the digestibility performance of food ingredients
used in aquaculture. The value of ADC (D4 > D1 >
D3 > D2) observed in this study was similar reported
by Sá et al. (2007) when white sea bream Diplodus sargus
juvenile were fed with varying level of dietary protein.
The need to use plant meal in combined form to produce the cheapest and
required nutrient for fish cannot be overemphasized, thus the basis of
this research which Kissil and Lupatsch (2002) reported less fish growth
in fish growth in fish fed an 80% soy protein concentration than in fish
fed with a control diet without soy protein, but when the gilthead sea
bream Sparus aurata was completely replaced by a plant material
mixture, the results were excellent.
The replacement of fishmeal by alternate sources of protein has met with
varied degree of success, depending on the nature and composition of ingredients,
inclusion level and method of processing. This study revealed clearly
that the nature, source and composition of ingredient and their inclusion
level affect the degree of digestibility. Thus ensiled parboiled beniseed
Sesamum indicum and raw African locust been Parkia biglobosa
have proven to be effective substitute for fish protein in Oreochromis
niloticus after the 56 days of exposure.
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