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Effects of Electromagnetic Fields of Cellular Phone on Cortisol and Testosterone Hormones Rate in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)



H. Aghdam Shahryar, A.R. Lotfi, M. Bahojb and A.R. Karami
 
ABSTRACT
In this study, the effects of exposure to a 950MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted from cellular phones on serum testosterone and cortisol hormones rate of adult male Syrian Hamster were evaluated. Seventy two male Hamster in 3 groups include: group 1 or control group, group 2 or expose for 10 days and under 950 MHz EMF (emitted from Cellular Phone) for 1 h daily group 3 or expose for 50 days and under 950 MHz EMF for 1 h daily. In final, blood samples collected for determine of the testosterone and cortisol concentration in the serum. Results showed that in long term exposure EMF (group 3) testosterone and cortisol levels were increased (p<0.01), but both of cortisol and testosterone hormones in short term EMF exposure (group 2) did not significantly change. In conclusion, long-term exposure of cellular phones EMF may affect the reproductive activity and impair endocrine homeostasis and it may cause peripheral effects.
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  How to cite this article:

H. Aghdam Shahryar, A.R. Lotfi, M. Bahojb and A.R. Karami, 2008. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields of Cellular Phone on Cortisol and Testosterone Hormones Rate in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). International Journal of Zoological Research, 4: 230-233.

DOI: 10.3923/ijzr.2008.230.233

URL: http://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijzr.2008.230.233

INTRODUCTION

Nowadays, with growth in mobile communications, exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic field (EMF) has increased due to mobile handset and base station antenna. Electromagnetic fields penetrate the animal body and act on all organs, altering the cell membrane potential and the distribution of ions and dipoles. These alterations may influence biochemical processes in the cell (Lee et al., 2004).

It`s shown that Microwaves (as specially waves from electromagnetic fields of cellular phones) cause to produce temperature and energy distribution in live tissues (Hirata et al., 2002; Lerchl et al., 2008). Temperature is an important factor in regulation of endocrine hormones releasing (Squires, 2003).

Also, these waves with extremely low frequency (in long term) make to get some variations in structure and Biochemical properties of the tissues (Lee et al., 2004). In related to electromagnetic radiations (EMR) and EMF and their effects on nervous and endocrine systems, it has been done a lot of experiments well (Lai, 1992; Koyu et al., 2005a, b).

It`s reported that magnetic fields (MFs) cause to hormonal increasing such as glucagons, cortisol and thyroxin in the rats (Gorczynska and Wegrznowics, 1991).

One of the other hormones of endocrine is related to cortisol. Cortisol excreted from Adrenal gland and is a stress indicator (Squires, 2003). Base on human`s studies; it`s approved increasing of serum cortisol as a result of EMF exposure (Radon et al., 2001).

According to Vangelova et al. (2007) studies, it`s recognized that cortisol hormone of physiotherapists has a significant difference in long term electromagnetic fields exposure as well as the cortisol of the nurses. They stated, physiotherapists have a high rate in stress hormones because of any long term exposure of EMFs.

Studies have been shown that MFs and 1 EMFs may change hormonal balance of sex hormones and affect reproductive activity (Cakir et al., 2003; Al-Akhras et al., 2005).

Also, exposure of EMFs in rats (in long term) may affect testosterone levels in serum (Forgács et al., 1998; Cakir et al., 2003). But results of previous studies are very different. Koyu et al. (2005a) and Al-Akhras et al. (2005) reported that testosterone hormone in rat can decrease in long-term EMF exposure condition. Cakir et al. (2003), Forgács et al. (1998) and Moon et al. (2006) have been reported that long-term exposure to EMFs can affect testosterone levels in rat and increase testosterone levels in serum.

The aim of this study is a review on biological effects of electromagnetic field of cellular phones (950 MHz) on excretion of testosterone and cortisol hormones in long or short terms by Syrian Hamsters.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

In experimental, it was done the contribution of time period under electromagnetic fields of cellular phone (950 MHz) on Serum testosterone and cortisol of Hamster concentration well. Study was conducted in Shabestar University Laboratory in summer, 2007. Animals were in 3 groups 1) Control 2) 24 male Hamster in separated cages for 10 days and they were under 950 MHz EMF (emitted from Cellular Phone) for 1 h daily 3) 24 male Hamster in separated cages for 50 days and they were under 950 MHz EMF for 1 h daily. Hamsters were maintained under 12 h light/12 h dark cycle in a temperature-regulated (22-23 °C) animal room with a continue free access to water and food. At then end of the test, blood samples collection from experimental groups, and the testosterone and cortisol concentration in the serum to be compared with serum concentration of the control group without of any electromagnetic field at them.

Statistical Analysis
Data collected subjected to analysis of variance and significant differences observed in means subjected to Duncan`s multiple range test. All data were analyzed by ANOVA using the general linear model (GLM) procedures of the SAS Institute.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

According to Table 1, the testosterone and cortisol concentrations serum of the Hamsters for three groups, (without of EMF), 10 and 50 days under electromagnetic field of cellular phones to observe.

In this study testosterone and cortisol have clearly increase in the hamsters that have been exposed to the EMF on 50 days (group 3 or long-term group) (p<0.01). But there was no significant difference between testosterone and cortisol hormones of control and short-term exposure groups (group 1, 2) (Table 1).

Table 1: Testosterone and cortisol concentrations in serum exposed to electromagnetic field (950 MHz) in Syrian Hamsters
Values with differences superscripts letter(s) are significantly different at p<0.01

Cortisol rate get significant to increasing for 50 days with 30 min daily beside of 900 MHz electromagnetic field (Koyu et al., 2005b). Sadeghi et al. (2006) reported an increasing of Glucose and cortisol for Guinea Pigs besides 50 Hz MF (after 5 day and daily 4 h exposure) they found that the MF to be caused for increasing the stress factors of serum.

According to Koyu et al. (2005a) reports, there is a significant difference for the cortisol rate in exposure of 1800 MHz. Also according to Radon et al. (2001) results, in present study, long term stress from cellular phones EMFs gets increasing the cortisol rate. Other blood factors of the stress had an increasing in Sadeghi et al. (2006) results (such as of Glucose).

Present study results about of cortisol hormone, were as same as Radon et al. (2001), Koyu et al. (2005a), Sadeghi et al. (2006) and Vangeleva et al. (2007).

It is shown that testosterone level in serum may increased in exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields (for example: 950 MHz) in long-term (Moon et al., 2006). But effects of low frequency EMF on serum testosterone level were not significance (Al-Akhras et al., 2005; Zhou et al., 2005).

Present results indicated that long-term exposure to 950 MHz EMF emitted from cellular phones may increased serum testosterone and cortisol level in Syrian hamsters and may affect the reproductive activity and impair endocrine homeostasis and it may cause peripheral effects. But short-term exposure didn`t have significance effect on serum cortisol and testosterone level in Syrian hamsters. Present results about testosterone of Syrian Hamsters (were as same as results and findings of influence of 50 Hz magnetic field on the testosterone production of mouse (Forgács et al., 1998), exposed to electromagnetic fields to 50 Hz of rats (Cakir et al., 2003) and influence of long-term Exposure of Rats (Moon et al., 2006). In present study with direct effects of cellular phones EMFs, differences between testosterone levels in control group and treatment groups ( specially in long-term ) is more significance than previous studies (Forgács et al., 1998; Cakir et al., 2003).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Financial support for this study was provided by Islamic Azad University (Shabestar Branch). The authors are also grateful to them valuable support and to pour-ahmadi for their skilled technical assistance throughout the experimental analyses.

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